Nucleaire Ontwapening: De Impact van het 'Humanitair Initiatief'

Felix Desmyttere
Een juridisch onderzoek dat startende van uit humanitaire overwegingen een dubbele problematiek tracht aan te pakken. Enerzijds wordt ingegaan op de verplichting voor staten hun nucleaire arsenalen te vernietigen. Anderzijds wordt de wettigheid van het gebruik van nucleaire wapens onderzocht.

Nucleaire Wapens: Overbodig of Broodnodig?

Nucleaire Wapens: overbodig of broodnodig?

Kernwapens hangen reeds gedurende heel wat decennia als een zwaard van Damocles boven het hoofd van de internationale gemeenschap. De Koude Oorlog mag dan wel voltooid verleden tijd zijn, nucleaire wapens zijn dat niet. In het relatief recente verleden doken nieuwe kernmogendheden op en investeerden staten in het moderniseren van hun arsenalen. Staten achten dergelijke wapens nog steeds van groots belang voor hun verdediging. Recent onderzoek (ICAN) wierp het licht op (on)rechtstreekse investeringen van KBC en VDK Spaarbank in nucleaire wapentechnologie. Hoe is het mogelijk dat kernwapens vandaag toegelaten zijn, of zijn ze dat niet?

Dat kernwapens brandend actueel zijn, heeft iedereen ongetwijfeld reeds opgevangen. De actualiteit overheerst met berichtgeving over atoomwapens, met de Verenigde Staten en Noord-Korea in de hoofdrol. Mijn onderzoek gaat in essentie in op twee elementen van dit debat.

 

Mogen staten kernwapens bezitten?

Ten eerste ga ik dieper in op de vraag of staten verplicht zijn hun kernwapens te vernietigen. Mogen staten met andere woorden kernwapens bezitten? In 1968 werd een verdrag (een akkoord tussen verschillende staten, n.v.d.r.) gesloten waarin staten zich verbonden hebben om inspanningen te doen op kernwapens te vernietigen. De vraag is echter of staten verplicht zijn dit te doen. Betekent ‘ik zal mijn best doen om morgen op tijd te komen’ hetzelfde als ‘ik beloof dat ik morgen niet te laat kom’? Verder vond ik het interessant na te gaan of landen die niet betrokken zijn bij het verdrag ook verbonden kunnen zijn. Was je met je vrienden niet mee naar de bioscoop, dan kan je ook niet verplicht zijn mee te betalen in de tickets voor de film. Het internationaal recht (de regels die de verhoudingen tussen staten regelen) bestaat echter zoiets als gewoonterecht. Wanneer een regel door alle, of bijna alle, staten aanvaard wordt, zullen ook landen die niet betrokken waren bij de creatie van de regel, deze moeten naleven. Op deze manier zou bijvoorbeeld Noord-Korea verplicht kunnen worden haar nucleaire wapens te vernietigen.

Ik kwam hierbij tot de conclusie dat staten verplicht zijn hun kernwapens te vernietigen. Voor staten die betrokken waren bij het akkoord van 1968 bestaat weinig discussie. Wie mee ging naar de bioscoop, betaalt mee. Voor staten die niet betrokken waren bij het akkoord kan geargumenteerd dat zij ook een verplichting hebben. Hierover bestaat wel meer discussie. Staten hebben nog steeds veel kernwapens. Daarover bestaat geen discussie. Volgens mij is het aldus duidelijk dat staten hun verplichtingen tot ‘ontwapening’ niet nakomen.

 

Mogen staten kernwapens gebruiken?

Het lijkt vreemd, maar ook tijdens oorlog gelden regels. Men mag niet voor eender welke reden oorlog voeren met een andere staat. Men mag ook niet eender welk wapen gebruiken tegen de vijand. Sommige wapens zijn verboden omdat ze ‘onnodig leed’ veroorzaken, anderen omdat burgers mogelijks slachtoffer kunnen worden. Zo werden reeds enkele wapens verboden.

Door mijn tweede vraag te bestuderen wenste ik een antwoord te vinden op de vraag of een kernwapen gebruikt mag worden tijdens oorlog. Naast klassieke theorieën hield ik hierbij rekening met een recente internationale stroming. Deze visie, het ‘humanitair initiatief’, gaat uit van de verschrikkelijke effecten van kernwapens. Nucleaire wapens veroorzaken bij hun gebruik vernietigende effecten voor de mens en het milieu en dit voor een zeer lange periode. De effecten van het testen van kernwapens tijdens de Koude Oorlog zijn tot op vandaag merkbaar in de getroffen regio’s. Deze destructieve effecten zijn volgens het ‘humanitaire initiatief’ de basis voor een verbod op kernwapens.

Ik stelde vast dat meer nodig was. Een basis moet ook gevonden worden in internationale regels. Er bestaat een internationaal akkoord dat kernwapens verbiedt, maar dit akkoord is nog niet actief. Bovendien zullen staten die nucleaire wapens bezitten dit akkoord niet steunen. Er is meer nodig. Daarom nam ik een reeks algemeen aanvaarde principes onder de loep. Het gaat om principes die toepasselijk zijn op oorlogsvoering. Burgers mogen bijvoorbeeld geen doel vormen van een aanval, net als het milieu. Wapens mogen geen onnodig leed veroorzaken. De mensenrechten, zoals het recht op leven, moeten steeds gewaarborgd blijven.

Als kerngedachte heb ik besloten dat geen enkel gebruik van een kernwapen in overeenstemming kan zijn met deze principes. Dit geldt voor de traditionele ‘atoombom’, die gehele steden en gebieden kan verwoesten. Dit besluit geldt eveneens voor modernere kernwapens, die kleiner en preciezer zijn. Deze ‘tactische kernwapens’ zijn even onwettig als hun grotere versies.

 

Hoe moet het nu verder?

Er bestaat op internationaal niveau een algeheel verbod op het bezit en het gebruik van kernwapens. Dit kan pas efficiënt worden toegepast als het voldoende steun vindt. Tot op heden zijn slechts 19 staten partij bij het verdrag. De andere staten gaan dus niet akkoord. Ook België geeft te kennen niet akkoord te gaan met het verdrag. Dit zou immers betekenen dat Amerikaanse kernwapens verwijderd dienen te worden uit ons land.

Belangrijke stappen zijn reeds gezet, maar de weg is nog lang en vol hindernissen. In het vervolg van mijn onderzoek ben ik ingegaan op deze hindernissen en hoe ze overwonnen kunnen worden. Dat de erkenning van het probleem door de internationale gemeenschap van groots belang is, staat buiten kievit. Op het niveau van de staten zelf is echter nog veel werk. Bewust van de bescheiden impact van mijn werk, hoop ik dat het toch ogen opent en een juridisch betoog voor de onwettigheid van kernwapens aanreikt.

Bibliografie

1.  Lijst van Rechtspraak, wetgeving en verwante documenten
1.1 Rechtspraak

Internationale Rechtspraak

PIGH

PIGH, Competence of the ILO to Regulate Agricultural Labour, Advisory Opinion, 12 augustus 1922, Series B, No. 2, pp. 8-43.

PIGH, The Case of the SS Lotus (France v. Turkey), 7 september 1927, Series A, No. 10, pp. 1-33.

IGH

IGH, North Sea Continental Shelf (Federal Republic of Germany v. Denmark and The Netherlands), February 20th, 1969, ICJ Rep. 1969, 3-56.

IGH, Fisheries Jurisdiction (United Kingdom v. Iceland), July 25th, 1974, ICJ Rep. 1974, 3-44.

IGH, Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France), December 20th, 1974, ICJ Rep. 1974, 253-274.

IGH, Interpretation of the Agreement of 25 March 1951 between the World Health Organisation and Egypt, Advisory Opinion, December 20th, 1980, ICJ Rep. 1980, 73-98.

IGH, Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area (Canada v. United States of America), January 20th, 1982, ICJ Rep. 1982, 246-352.

IGH, Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America), June 27th, 1986, ICJ Rep. 1986, 392-443.

IGH, Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso v. Republic of Mali), December 22nd, 1986, ICJ Rep. 1986, 573, 554-651.

IGH, Territorial Dispute (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. Chad), February 3rd, 1994, ICJ Rep. 1994, 6-41.

IGH, Request for an Examination of the Situation in Accordance with Paragraph 63 of the Court’s Judgement of 20 december 1974 in the Nuclear Tests (New Zealand v. France) Case, 22 september 1995, ICJ Rep. 1995, 288-308.

IGH, Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict, Advisory Opinion, July 8th, 1996, ICJ Rep. 1996, 66-85.

IGH, Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, July 8th, 1996, ICJ Rep. 226-267.

IGH, Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros (Hungary v. Slovakia), September 25th, 1997, ICJ Rep. 1997, 7-84.

IGH, Kasikili/Sedudu Island (Botswana v. Namibia), December 13th, 1999, ICJ Rep. 1999, 1045-1109.

IGH, Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v. United States of America), March 31st, 2004, ICJ Rep. 2004, 12-73.

IGH, Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, July 9th, 2004, ICJ Rep. 2004, 136-203.

IGH, Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), February 26th, 2007, ICJ Rep. 2007, 43-240.

IGH, Dispute Regarding Navigational and Related Rights (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), July 13th, 2009, ICJ Rep. 2009, 213-272.

IGH, Maritime Dispute (Peru v. Chile), January 27th, 2014, ICJ Rep. 2014, 3-74.

IGH, Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islands v. India), October 5th, 2016, ICJ Rep. 2016, 255-278.

IGH, Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islands v. Pakistan), October 5th, 2016, ICJ Rep. 2016, 552-574.

IGH, Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islands v. United Kingdom), October 5th, 2016, ICJ Rep. 2016, 833-857.

ICTY

ICTY, Prosecutor v. Zoran Kupreškić et al., Judgement of January 14th, 2000, Case IT-95-16-T, 1-342.

ICTY, Prosecutor v. Milan Martić, Judgement of June 12th, 2007, Case IT-95-11-T, 1-198.

Arbitrage

Tacna-Arica Question (Chile v. Peru), March 4th, 1925, R.I.A.A., Vol. II, 921-958.

Lake Lanoux Arbitration (France v. Spain), November 16th, 1957, R.I.A.A. 281, 1-36.

Regionale Rechtspraak

EHRM

EHRM, Benzer and Others v. Turkey, Application no. 23502/06, 12 november 2013, 1-51.

EHRM, Makaratzis v. Greece, Application no. 50385/99, 20 december 2004, 1-46.

EHRM, Ergi v. Turkey, Application No. 66/1997/850/1057, 28 juli 1998, 1-37.

EHRM, Isayeva v. Russia, Application No. 57950/00, 6 juli 2005, 1-56.

EHRM, L.C.B. v. The United Kingdom, Application No. 14/1997/798/1001, 9 juni 1998, 1-16.

EHRM, El-Masri v. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Application No. 39630/09, 13 december 2012, 1-85.

EHRM, Ireland v. United Kingdom, Application No. 5310/71, 18 januari 1978, 1-128.

EHRM, Selmouni v. France, Application No. 25803/94, 28 juli 1999, 1-38.

EHRM, A. And Others v. United Kingdom, Application No. 3455/05, 19 februari 2009, 1-95.

EHRM, East African Indians v. United Kingdom, Application Nos. 4403/70-4419/70, 4422/70, 4434/70, 4443/70, 4476/70-4478/70, 4501/70 en 4526/70-4530/70, Report Adopted by the Commission, 14 december 1971, 1-69.

1.2 Wetgeving

Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 9 december 1948, UNTS, Vol. 78, 277.

The Antarctic Treaty, 1 december 1959, UNTS, Vol. 402, 71.

Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, August 5th, 1963, UNTS 480, 43.

Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America, 14 februari 1967, UNTS, Vol. 634, 281.

Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, 27 januari 1967, UNTS, Vol. 610, 205.

Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, 1 juli 1968, UNTS, Vol. 729, 161.

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 23 May 1969, UNTS, vol. 1155, 331.

Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof, 11 februari 1971, UNTS, Vol. 995, 115.

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxic Weapons and on Their Destruction, 10 april 1972, UNTS, Vol. 1015, 163.

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, 10 december 1976, UNTS, Vol. 1108, 151.

Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), 8 juni 1977, UNTS, Vol. 1125, 3.

Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, 5 december 1979, UNTS, Vol. 1363, 3.

Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction, 3 September 1992, UNTS, Vol. 1974, 45.

South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty, 6 augustus 1985, UNTS, Vol. 1445, 177.

Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone, 15 december 1995, UNTS, Vol. 1981.

Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, 18 september 1997, UNTS, 2056, 211

African Nuclear Weapon-Free-Zone Treaty, 11 april 1996.

Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia, 8 september 2006, UNTS, Vol. 2970.

Convention on Cluster Munitions, 30 mei 2008, UNTS, 2688, 39.

Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, 7 juli 2017 (nog niet in werking getreden).

1.3 Relevante documenten

Verenigde Naties

Algemene Vergadering

Resoluties

Resolutie 1(I), 24 januari 1946 (Discovery of Atomic Energy)

Resolutie 192 (III), 19 november 1948 (Prohibition of the Atomic Weapon)

Resolutie 1576 (XV), 20 december 1960 (Prevention of Dissemination of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 1665 (XVI), 4 december 1961 (Prevention of Dissemination of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 1908 (XVIII), 27 november 1963 (General and Complete Disarmament)

Resolutie 2028 (XX), 19 november 1965 (Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 2153A (XXI), 17 november 1966 (Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 2164 (XXI), 5 december 1966 (Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons Convention)

Resolutie 2346 (XXII), 19 december 1967 (Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 2373 (XXII),12 juni 1968 (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 2289 (XXII), 8 december 1967 (Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 2625 (XXI), 24 oktober 1970 (Friendly Relations Declaration)

Resolutie 2936 (XXVII), 29 december 1972 (Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 49/75K, 15 December 1994 (Request for Advisory Opinion)

Resolutie 51/45M, 10 januari 1997, (ICJ Advisory Opinion on Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 55/33S, 11 januari 2001 (Mongolia)

Resolutie 64/59, 14 januari 2010 (Convention on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 65/80, 8 december 2010 (Convention on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 65/56, 8 december 2010 (Nuclear Disarmament) (

Resolutie 66/57, 13 december 2011(Convention on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 67/64, 11 december 2012 (Convention on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 68/51, 11 december 2013 (Action Towards Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 68/58, 11 december 2013 (Convention on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 69/52, 11 december 2014 (Action Towards Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 69/69, 11 december 2014 (Convention on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 70/40, 11 december 2015 (Action Towards Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 70/62, 11 december 2015 (Convention on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 71/49, 12 december 2016 (Action Towards Total Elimination of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 71/75, 15 december 2016 (Convention on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 72/31, 11 december 2017 (Nuclear Disarmament Negotiations)

Resolutie 72/58, 13 december 2017 (ICJ Advisory Opinion Follow-Up)

Resolutie 72/59, 13 december 2017 (Convention on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons)

Overige Documenten

UNGA, Official Records, 5 januari 1946, A/3 (List of Agenda Items)

UNGA, Official Records, 19 september 1958, A/PV.751 (General Debate)

UNGA, Official Records, 23 september 1959, A/PV.805 (General Debate)

UNGA, Official Records, 20 september 1961, A/4879 (Principles Disarmament Negotiations)

UNGA, Official Records, 19 november 1965, A/PV.1382 (Non-Proliferation Nuclear Weapons)

UNGA, Official Records, 10 oktober 1967, A/6858 (Effects of Nuclear Weapons)

UNGA, Official Records, 11 maart 1968, A/7072 Annex I (Draft Treaty Non-Proliferation)

UNGA, Official Records, 12 juni 1969, A/PV.1672 (Non-Proliferation Nuclear Weapons)

UNGA, Tenth Special Session, Resolution Adopted on the Report of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Tenth Special Session, 1978, A/S-10/4.

UNGA, Comprehensive Study on Nuclear Weapons, 18 september 1990, A/45/737.

Eerste Comité Algemene Vergadering

Resoluties

Resolutie A/C.1/L.206, 17 oktober 1958 (Question of Disarmament)

Resolutie A/C.1/71/L.41, 4 oktober 2016 (Nuclear Disarmament Negotiations)

Overige Documenten

UNGA First Committee, 17 september 1958, A/C.1/SR.953 (Question of Disarmament)

UNGA First Committee, 26 april 1968, A/C.1/PV.1556 (Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

UNGA First Committee, 16 mei 1968, A/C.1/PV.1569 (Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

UNGA First Committee, 20 mei 1968, A/C.1/PV.1571 (Non-Proliferation of Nucear Weapons)

UNGA First Committee, 10 juni 1968, A/C.1/PV.1582 (Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons)

Veiligheidsraad

Resolutie 984, 11 april 1995 (Use of Nuclear Weapons)

Resolutie 1874, 12 juni 2009 (Non-Proliferation/DPRK)

Resolutie 1887, 24 september 2009 (Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Nuclear Disarmament)

Resolutie 1928, 7 juni 2010 (Non-Proliferation/DPRK)

Resolutie 1929, 9 juni 2010 (Non-Proliferation)

Resolutie 1985, 10 juni 2011 (Non-Proliferation/DPRK)

Resolutie 2050, 12 juni 2012 (Non-Proliferation/DPRK)

Resolutie 2094, 7 maart 2013 (Non-Proliferation/DPRK)

Resolutie 2159, 9 juni 2014 (Non-Proliferation/Iran)

Resolutie 2231, 20 juli 2015 (Non-Proliferation)

Resolutie 2407, 21 maart 2018 (Non-Proliferation/DPRK)

Mensenrechtenraad

UN Human Rights Committee, 23rd Session, General Comment No. 14, Article 6, 1984.

International Law Association

ILA, Committee on the Formation of Customary (General) International Law, ILA Rep. Conf. 2000, 712-790.

ILA, Nuclear Weapons, Non-Proliferation and Contemporary International Law”, Int’l L. Ass’n Rep. Conf. 2014, 387-423.

International Law Commission

ILC, Guiding Principles Applicable to Unilateral Declarations of States Capable of Creating Legal Obligations, U.N.Y.B Int’l L. Comm’n 2006, Vol. 2(2), 160 ev.

ILC, Yearbook of the International Law Commission 1966, Vol. 2.

Internationaal Atoomagentschap

IAEA, “Radiological Conditions at Bikini Atoll: Prospects for Resettlement”, Radiological Assessment Report Series 1998, 1-67.

Non-Proliferation Treaty Conferences

Preparatory Committees

2015 PrepCom., NPT/CONF.2015/PC.I/WP.40, 27 april 2012 (China Working Paper)

2015 PrepCom., NPT/CONF.2015/PC.II/WP.29, 17 april 2013 (China Working Paper)

2015 PrepCom., NPT/CONF.2015/PC.III/17, 25 april 2014 (Russia Review Report)

2015 PrepCom., NPT/CONF.2015/PC.III/13, 29 april 2014 (China Review Report)

2015 PrepCom., NPT/CONF.2015/PC.III/16, 1 mei 2014 (United States Review Report)

2020 PrepCom., NPT/CONF/2020/PC.II/WP.9, 9 maart 2018 (Humanitarian Consequences)

2020 PrepCom., NPT/CONF/2020/PC.III/WP.10, 12 maart 2018 (Humanitarian Perspective)

2020 PrepCom., NPT/CONF.2020/PC.II/WP.30, 18 april 2018 (United States Working Paper)

Final Documents

1975 Review Conference, NPT/CONF/35/I, 30 mei 1975 (Final Document Part I)

1980 Review Conference, NPT/CONF.II/22/I, 7 september 1980 (Final Document Part I)

1980 Review Conference, NPT/CONF.II/22/II, 7 september 1980 (Final Document Part II)

1985 Review Conference, NPT/CONF.III/64/I, 25 september 1985 (Final Document Part I)

1995 Review & Extension Conference, NPT/CONF.1995/32 (Part I)

2000 Review Conference, NPT/CONF.2000/28 (Parts III)

2000 Review Conference, NPT/CONF.2000/32 (Parts I and II)

2010 Review Conference, NPT/CONF.2010/28, 3 mei 2010 (Russian National Report)

2010 Review Conference, NPT/CONF.2010/45, 7 mei 2010 (United States National Report)

2010 Review Conference, NPT/CONF.2010/50 (Vol. 1)

Nationale Documenten

Verenigde Staten

H. Truman, State of the Union Address, 1947.

U.S. Department of State, The United States Program for General and Complete Disarmament and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World, Washington, 1961.

The White House Office of the Press Secretary, Remarks by president Barack Obama in Prague as Delivered, 5 april 2009, beschikbaar op: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president….

United States Department of Defense, Nuclear Posture Review Report, April 2010.

United States Department of Defense, Nuclear Posture Review, February 2018.

Rusland

USSR, Memorandum of the Government of The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Concerning Urgent Measures to Stop the Arms Race and Achieve Disarmament, 18 december 1968.

UN Documents on Disarmament, Address by Foreign Minister Gromyko to the Supreme Soviet, 27 juni 1968.

The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, 2010.

2 Bibliografie
2. 1 Boeken

Bedjaoui, M., Good Faith, International Law, and the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, Geneva, 2008, 33 p.

Black-Branch, J.L., Fleck, D. (eds.), Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law: Volume I, Den Haag, Asser Press, 2014, 267 p.

Black-Branch, J.L., Fleck, D. (eds.), Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law: Volume II: Verification and Compliance, Den Haag, Asser Press, 2016, 420 p.

Black-Branch, J.L., Fleck, D. (eds.), Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law: Volume III: Legal Aspects of the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes, Den Haag, Asser Press, 2016, 556 p.

Boothby, W., The Law of Targeting, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, 603 p.

Boothby, W., Weapons and the Law of Armed Conflict, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, 412 p.

Borrie, J. en Caughley, T. (eds.), Viewing Nuclear Weapons Through a Humanitarian Lens, Geneva, UNIDIR, 2013, 157 p.

Cançado Trindade, A., International Law for Humankind: Towards a New Jus Gentium, Leiden, Brill Nijhof, 2013, 726 p.

Cassese, A., The Human Dimension of International Law: Selected Papers, New York, Oxford University Press, 2008, 539 p.

Coppen, T., The Law of Arms Control and the International Non-Proliferation Regime: Preventing the Spread of Nuclear Weapons, Leiden, Brill Nijhof, 2017, 377 p.

Demeyere, B. en Ruys, T., “Means and Methods of Warfare” in Wouters, J., De Man, P. En Verlinden, N. (eds.), Armed Conflicts and the Law, Antwerpen, Intersentia, 2016, (305) 305-342.

Dinstein, Y., The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010, X + 320 p.

Fihn, B. (ed.), Unspeakable Suffering the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons, Geneva, Reaching Critical Will, 2013, 101 p.

Fleck, F., “Nuclear Weapons in International Law”, in Liivoja, R. en Mccormack, T. (eds.), Routledge Handbook of the Law of Armed Conflict, Oxon, Routledge, 2016, (233) 233-250.

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Goodwin-Gill, G., “State Responsibility and the ‘Good Faith’ Obligation in International Law”, in Fitzmaurice, M. en Sarooshi, D. (eds.), Issues of State Responsibility Before International Judicial Institutions, Portland-Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2004, 75-104.

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Jasani, B., Niemeyer, I., Nussbaum, S., Richter, B. en Stein, G. (eds.), International Safeguards and Satellite Imagery: Key Features of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Computer-Based Analysis, Berlin, Springer, 2009, 176 p.

Joyner, D.H., International Law and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, 378 p.

Joyner, D.H., Interpreting the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2011, 184 p.

Joyner, D.H., Iran’s Nuclear Program and International Law: From Confrontation to Accord, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016, 249 p.

Kolb, R., The Law of Treaties: An Introduction, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, 296 p.

Koppe, E., The Use of Nuclear Weapons and the Protection of the Environment during International Armed Conflict, Oxford, Hart Publishing, 2008, 447 p.

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