A prototype decision support tool for native woody species selection for seasonally dry tropical forest restoration in northern Peru and southern Ecuador

Siebe Briers
Er werd een online app ontwikkeld voor de selectie van inheemse struik- en boomsoorten voor het herstel van tropische droogbossen in Noord-Peru en Zuid-Ecuador. De selectie gebeurt op basis van de lokale omgevingsstressfactoren op de plaats van herstel en de gewenste producten en/of diensten.

Tropische droogbossen herstellen? Gebruik een app!

Tropische droogbossen in Noord-Peru en Zuid-Ecuador zijn zeer waardevol maar ook sterk bedreigd. Een groot deel van dit type bos is reeds verdwenen en/of gedegradeerd, herstel is dan ook noodzakelijk. Zeer belangrijk hierin is het kiezen van de geschikte struik- en/of boomsoorten. Via een online app worden soorten aangeraden op basis van een reeks aan omgevingsfactoren en gewenste diensten en/of producten geleverd door de soorten. De app is beschikbaar op: https://siebe.shinyapps.io/PrototypeDST/.

Tropisch droogbos

Tropische droogbossen waardevol?

Deze bossen leveren zeer veel producten en diensten aan de lokale bevolking. Vooral brandhout, timmerhout, medicinale gebruiken en voedsel voor het vee bleken de belangrijkste gebruiken van de struik- en boomsoorten. Verder herbergen deze bossen een groot aantal aan belangrijke dier- en plantensoorten, vele soorten komen enkel in kleine gebieden voor en zijn sterk bedreigd.

 

Bedreiging

Tropische droogbossen zijn bossen met een uitgesproken droog seizoen van tenminste vijf maanden, in deze periode valt er maximum 100 millimeter regen. Deze droogte zorgt ervoor dat ze makkelijker vernietigd en moeilijker hersteld worden dan tropische regenwouden. Aangezien tropische droogbossen meestal gelegen zijn op vruchtbare gronden, zijn deze bossen vaak gelegen in relatief dichtbevolkte gebieden, dit veroorzaakt hun degradatie. Overbegrazing, selectieve kapping, brand, erosie en woestijnvorming zijn de hoofdoorzaken van degradatie. Door de degradatie en ontbossing zijn tropische droogbossen nu één van de meest bedreigde bostypes op aarde. Ondanks de toenemende wetenschappelijke aandacht voor tropische droogbossen blijven ze sterk onder-bestudeerd en is de beschikbare informatie sterk verdeeld over verschillende bronnen.

 

Herstel

Tot heden werden in herstelprojecten van tropische droogbossen meestal slechts een aantal bekende en eenvoudig verkrijgbare soorten geplant. Deze soorten zijn niet persé geschikt zijn om te planten onder de lokale omgevingsstressfactoren (vb sterke helling, gecompacteerde bodem) en ze voorzien niet altijd de lokaal verkozen diensten en producten, dit heeft invloed op het succes van de herstelprojecten.

 

Online app

Om te voorkomen dat willekeurige soorten zouden aangeplant worden bij herstelprojecten is er een computerprogramma voor soortenselectie ontwikkeld. De app focust op aanbevelingen van inheemse struik- en boomsoorten voor de tropische droogbossen in Noord-Peru en Zuid-Ecuador. De gebruiker van de app geeft op welke lokale omgevingsstressfactoren aanwezig zijn op de plaats voor bosherstel en welke producten en/of diensten hij of zij verwacht. Een lijst met aanbevolen soorten om te planten, gerangschikt volgens hun geschiktheid, is het resultaat. De gebruiker kan kiezen uit 12 omgevingsstressfactoren en 24 hersteldoelstellingen. Voor het ontwikkelen van deze online app is informatie over 111 inheemse struik- en/of boomsoorten samengebracht in een uitgebreide database. Informatie is afkomstig van vijf verschillende types bronnen, namelijk: interviews met lokale ecologische kennis experts, interviews met lokale huishoudens, interviews met wetenschappelijke experts, literatuur en schattingen gebaseerd op planteigenschappen. De online app is beschikbaar op: https://siebe.shinyapps.io/PrototypeDST/.

 

Conclusie

Vanaf heden is het juist kiezen van struik- en boomsoorten voor het herstel van tropische droogbossen erg makkelijk! Dit dankzij een online app, waarin zeer veel en uiteenlopende informatie is samengebracht. De gebruiker kiest uit een lijst welke lokale omgevingsstressfactoren aanwezig zijn op de plaats uitgekozen voor bosherstel en welke hersteldoelstellingen gewenst zijn. De gebruiker krijgt dan de aanbevolen soorten als resultaat.

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