Mapping of the issues concerning the illegal trade in wildlife, including the internet trade and suggestions for a better approach.

Demy Geldhof
Problematiek rond de illegale handel in bedreigde dier- en plantensoorten uitgelegd. Bestaande internationale regelgeving en initiatieven opgesomd, alsook suggesties voor een betere aanpak in de toekomst.

De illegale handel in bedreigde dier- en plantensoorten ontleed.

Op het internet kan je tegenwoordig zowat alles kopen. Verschillende studies tonen aan dat bedreigde dier- en plantensoorten in grote aantallen verkocht worden via veilingsites zoals eBay en op sociale media als Facebook, Instagram, enzoverder. Als je 'buy exotic animals' op Facebook ingeeft, vind je verschillende gesloten groepen waar luipaarden, primaten tot vrijwel alle soorten reptielen verhandeld worden. Als je als consument een mooi, exotisch dier online wilt aankopen is het quasi onmogelijk te bepalen of deze diersoort (of een lichaamsdeel ervan) al dan niet mag aangekocht worden. Hetzelfde geldt voor exotische planten. Men beweert telkens over de juiste documentatie te beschikken, maar het is voor een leek zeer moeilijk dit na te gaan. Fraude, vervalsing en witwassen zijn hier dan ook niet onbekend. Met als gevolg dat de illegale handel in de meer dan 35.000 met uitsterven bedreigde dier- en plantensoorten goed is voor naar schatting 20 miljard dollar per jaar. Dat plaatst hem op dezelfde hoogte als de drugs-, wapen- en mensenhandel.

Consumenten zijn zich niet bewust van hun aandeel in deze illegale handel, noch van het dierenleed dat hierachter verscholen ligt. De vangmethodes - strikken, valkuilen, netten en klemmen - zijn stuk voor stuk verschrikkelijk en kunnen niet garanderen dat het "juiste" dier wordt gevangen laat staan dat ze kunnen verzekeren dat het dier überhaupt overleeft. Tot het moment van verkoop worden ze in erbarmelijke omstandigheden gehouden. Financieel gewin neemt hier duidelijk de bovenhand op dierenwelzijn.

Kaketoe geforceerd in een plastiek fles.Ook het transport van de gevangen dieren is vaak gruwelijk. In Indonesië werden smokkelaars betrapt met bedreigde kaketoes die in plastiek flessen werden geforceerd. De daders zijn zeer vindingrijk in dieren over de grens te krijgen en gebruiken populaire koeriersdiensten, zoals DHL en FedEx, om hun "goederen" te verzenden. Het internet en deze koeriersdiensten maken het voor iedereen mogelijk om exotische fauna en flora aan te kopen. Deze screenshot van een vingeraapje, gevonden in een gesloten Facebookgroep, toont aan hoe makkelijk je een exotisch dier kan aankopen en schetst al snel een beeld van hoe ver het aapje van z'n natuurlijke habitat verwijderd wordt.

Screenshot, genomen in een gesloten Facebookgroep van een vingeraapje in een jurk

De ecologische gevolgen van de illegale handel zijn waarschijnlijk niet zo bekend bij het grote publiek. Het WWF bracht in 2016 een studie uit die aantoonde dat de mensheid een zesde massa-uitsterving aan het veroorzaken is. Hoewel verschillende menselijke ingrepen hier aan de oorzaak liggen, zoals de ontbossing van het Amazonewoud, mag niet vergeten worden dat ook consumenten de hevige exploitatie en dus deze gigantische uitsterving in de hand werken. Verder worden al dan niet bedreigde dier- en plantensoorten in vreemde omgevingen geïntroduceerd, waar ze bestaande ecosystemen catastrofaal kunnen veranderen. Zo kunnen inheemse soorten verdwijnen door competitie met de nieuwe invasieve soorten en door gebrek aan sanitaire controles kunnen uitheemse ziektes binnengebracht worden, waartegen de streekeigen dieren en planten niet bestand zijn.

Als je als consument hier wel al bij hebt stilgestaan, en dit toch ondergeschikt vindt. Wat dan met het leed dat deze handel bij mensen veroorzaakt? Net zoals de drugshandel gaat de illegale handel in exotische dieren en planten gepaard met het vermoorden van mensen, corruptie en onderuithalen van politieke en wetgevingssystemen. Landen die volop in ontwikkeling zijn, beladen met natuurlijke rijkdommen, zijn hier het kwetsbaarst voor. De politieke (en dus nationale) stabiliteit wordt hierdoor ondermijnd en zo komt de lokale fauna en flora in handen van criminele netwerken. Dat laatste heeft ook rechtstreekse gevolgen voor het plaatselijke toerisme die hier veelal op teert. Zegt dit je nog altijd niets, wat dan met de terreurdreiging in ons eigen land? Er zijn steeds meer aanwijzingen die aantonen dat er een link is tussen deze illegale handel en de financiële inkomsten van terrorisme. Als men deze financiële inkomsten wil blootleggen en tevens problematiek in ontwikkelingslanden wil aanpakken, is het van groot belang dat deze illegale markt niet uit het oog verloren wordt.

Exotische dieren komen, zoals vermeld, vaker voor in ontwikkelingslanden waar corruptie jammer genoeg welig tiert. Het gaat meestal om gesofisticeerde internationale criminele kringen en netwerken die precies weten hoe ze te werk moeten gaan en steeds meer manieren vinden om wetgevingssystemen te omzeilen. Zo blijven ze onder de rader opereren, importeren en exporteren. Deze netwerken of organisaties zijn vaak gelijkaardig aan die van de drugswereld, gelinkt eraan of zijn simpelweg dezelfde organisaties. Staten zien het bestrijden en bestraffen van deze handel niet als prioriteit, waardoor hij aantrekkelijk en vaak weinig risicovol is voor criminele organisaties. Daarenboven wordt alles nog eens eenvoudiger en anoniemer door de online handel (E-commerce). 

Er zijn dringend maatregelen nodig om criminelen te ontmoedigen in deze handel te investeren. Gevangenisstraffen en geldboetes moeten worden verhoogd. Websites en sociale mediabedrijven moeten aansprakelijk worden gesteld. Nog belangrijker is dat consumenten inzien dat exotische dieren (of hun lichaamsdelen) en -planten niet in de woonkamer thuis horen. Beter van ze in hun natuurlijke habitat op te zoeken en zo het lokale toerisme te steunen. Deze bewustwording is noodzakelijk om ons ecologisch systeem te redden, ontwikkelingslanden te steunen, inkomsten van terrorisme terug te schroeven en vooral om dierenwelzijn te verhogen. Om het met Jane Goodall's woorden te zeggen: "When there are no customers, there is no trade."

 

Bibliografie

BIBLIOGRAPHY 
 
Treaties 
 
Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime, concerning the criminalization of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems of 28 January 2003, European Treaty Series No. 189. 
 
Article 22 United Nations Charter 
 
Article 83 (1) Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) 
 
Convention on Cybercrime of 23 November 2001, European Treaty Series, no. 185.  
 
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora of 3 March 1973, Washington D.C., https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/disc/CITESConvention-EN.pdf
 
Lacey Act, 16 U.S.C. §3372(2)(A) (2012) 
 
United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime of 29 September 2003, United Nations Treaty Series, Vol. 2225, 209. 
 
 
Explanatory reports of treaties 
 
Council of Europe, ‘Explanatory report to the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Cybercrime, concerning the criminalization of acts of a racist and xenophobic nature committed through computer systems’, European Treaty Series No. 189. (available at https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?d… =09000016800d37ae) 
 
Council of Europe, ‘Explanatory report to the Convention on Cybercrime’, European Treaty Series No. 185. (available at https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?d… =09000016800cce5b) 
 
POLAIN M., “Guide to the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC)”, London Centre of International Law Practice February 2015. (available at http://www.lcilp.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Guide-to-the-UN-Convent…); 
 
SHERLOCK UNODC, ‘Legislative guide to United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime’. (available at  https://www.unodc.org/cld/v3/sherloc/legislativeguide/index.html?lng=en… e.toc-ref0_s1%22,%22value%22:%22III%22%7D,%7B%22fieldName%22:%22guideline.toc
93 
 
ref1_s1%22,%22value%22:%22%5B*%20TO%20*%5D%22%7D%5D,%22sortings%22:%2 2%22%7D) 
 
U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre, ‘UNCAC in a nutshell : A quick guide to the United Nations Convention Against Corruption for embassy and donor agency staff, U4 Brief September 2010:6. (available at  http://www.u4.no/publications/uncac-in-a-nutshell-a-quickguide-to-the-u…
 
UNODC, ‘Legislative guide to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and the Protocols thereto’. (available at https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CTOC/legislative-guide.html
 
 
Resolutions 
 
Doc. 29 of the Conference of the Parties on Combating Wildlife Cybercrime (COP17, October 2016). (available at https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/cop/17/WorkingDocs/ECoP17-29…
 
Draft resolution of the Conference of the Parties on Prohibiting, preventing and countering corruption facilitating activities conducted in violation of the convention (2016), COP17 Doc. 28. (available at https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/cop/17/WorkingDocs/E-CoP17-28…
 
Resolution 10.7 of the Conference of the Parties on Disposal of confiscated live specimens of species included in the Appendices (March 2010, Rev COP15) (available at https://cites.org/eng/res/all/10/E10-07R15.pdf
 
Resolution 11.3 of the Conference of the Parties on Compliance and Enforcement (Rev COP14, March 2010). (available at https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/res/all/11/E1103R15.pdf
 
Resolution 12.3 of the Conference of the Parties on Permits and certificates (Rev. COP15, March 2010). (available at: https://cites.org/eng/res/all/12/E12-03R15.pdf
 
Resolution 17.6 of the Conference of the Parties on Prohibiting, preventing and countering corruption facilitating activities conducted in violation of the convention (September 2016) (available at https://cites.org/sites/default/files/document/E-Res-17-06.pdf
 
Resolution 45/116 of the General Assembly of the United Nations (14 December 1990), UN Doc. A/RES/45/116 (1990). 
 
Resolution 55/25 of the General Assembly of the United Nations (8 January 2001), UN Doc. A/RES/55/25 (2001) 
 
Resolution 67/213 of the General Assembly of the United Nations (21 December 2012), UN Doc. A/RES/67/2012 (2012 
 
Resolution 69/314 of the General Assembly of the United Nations (30 July 2015), UN Doc. A/RES/69/314 (2015). 
94 
 
 
Resolution 2013/40 of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations (25 July 2013), UN Doc. E/RES/2013/40 (2013). 
 
Resolution (2016/2076(INI)) of the European Parliament (24 November 2016), P8_TA-PROV (2016)0454. 
 
Resolution 2195 of the General Assembly of the United Nations (19 December 2014, UN Doc. S/RES/2195 (2014). 
 
Resolution 2997 (XXVII) from the General Assembly of the United Nations (15 December 1972), UN Doc. A/RES/27/2997 (1972). 
 
 
Decisions of international organizations 
 
Constitution of the ICPO-INTERPOL, I/CONS/GA/1956(2008), https://www.interpol.int/ 
 
CITES, ‘Decision 15.57 directed to: Parties’, https://www.cites.org/eng/dec/valid17/81840  
 
CITES, ‘Decision 17.92 directed to: Parties’, https://www.cites.org/eng/dec/valid17/81840  
 
CITES, ‘Decision 17.93 directed to: Secretariat’, https://www.cites.org/eng/dec/valid17/81840  
 
CITES, ‘Decision 17.94 directed to: Standing Committee’, https://www.cites.org/eng/dec/valid17/81840  
 
CITES, ‘Decision 17.95 directed to: Standing Committee’, https://www.cites.org/eng/dec/valid17/81840  
 
CITES, ‘INFORMATION DOCUMENT ON TIGERNET’, COP15 2010, Inf.71, https://cites.org/common/cop/15/inf/C15i-71.pdf 
 
CITES, ‘Notification to the Parties: Integration of the CITES Enforcement Authorities Forum with WCO’s ENVIRONET’, 25 June 2015, No. 2015/039, https://cites.org/sites/default/files/notif/E-Notif-2015-039.pdf 
 
CITES, ‘Notification to the Parties: New illegal trade report’, 5 February 2016, No. 2016/007, https://cites.org/sites/default/files/notif/E-Notif-2016-007.pdf 
 
Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy, ‘Wildlife crime’, 2015, PE 570.008, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2016/570008/IPOL_STU(… 8_EN.pdf 
 
Dir.ParlCouncil nr.2000/31/EC, 8 June 2000 on certain legal aspects of information society services, in particular electronic commerce, in the Internal Market (Directive on electronic commerce), Pb. L. 17 June 2000 afl. 178/1 
 
Dir.Parl.Council no.2008/99/EC, 19 November 2008 on the protection of the environment through criminal law, Pb.L. 6 December 2008, afl. 328/28. 
 
European Commission, ‘Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and Council on an Action Plan for strengthening the fight against terrorist financing’, 2016, 50 Final, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:e6e0de37-ca7c-11e5-a4… 
 
European Commission, ‘EU Action Plan against Wildlife Trafficking’, 2016, 87 Final, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/cites/pdf/WAP_EN_WEB.PDF 
 
Fifty-eighth meeting of the Standing Committee on E-Commerce of specimens of CITESlisted species (6-10 July 2009), SC58 Doc.22, https://www.cites.org/eng/com/sc/58/E5822.pdf
 
NOWELL K. and PERVUSHINA N., “Review of implementation of Resolution Conf. 12.5 (Rev. COP16) on Conservation of and trade in tigers and other Appendix-I Asian big cat species: Report to the CITES Secretariat for the 65th meeting of the Standing Committee”, SC65 Doc.38 Annex I, https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/com/sc/65/E-SC65-38A01_0.pdf
 
United for Wildlife Transport Taskforce Buckingham Palace Declaration, WCO, Brussels, 15 March 2016, http://www.wcoomd.org/~/media/wco/public/global/pdf/topics/enforcementa…  
 
 
Books  
 
BIERMANN F., Earth System Governance : World Politics in the Anthropocene, Cambridge, MIT Press, 2014, 267 p. 
 
BIERMANN F., “The rationale for a World Environment Organization”, in F. BIERMANN and S. BAUER (eds), A World Environment Organization – Solution or threat for effective international environmental governance?, Cornwall, Ashgate, 2005, 117-144. 
 
CHARNOVITZ S., “Toward a World Environment Organization : Reflections upon a vital debate”, in F. BIERMANN and S. BAUER (eds), A World Environment Organization – Solution or threat for effective international environmental governance?, Cornwall, Ashgate, 2005, 87-115. 
 
ELLIOT L., “The United Nations’ record on environmental governance : an assessment”, in F. BIERMANN and S. BAUER (eds), A World Environment Organization – Solution or threat for effective international environmental governance?, Cornwall, Ashgate, 2005, 2751. 
 
GOETEYN N. and MAES F., “The clustering of multilateral environmental agreements : Can the clustering of the chemicals-related conventions be applied to the biodiversity and climate change conventions?”, in F. MAES, A. CLIQUET, W. DU PLESSIS and H. MCLEOD
 
KILMURRAY (eds), Biodiversity and climate change : Linkages at international level, national and local levels, Northampton, Edward Elgar Pub., 2013, 147-175. 
 
KIRTON J.J., “Generating effective global environmental governance : the North’s need for a World Environment Organization”, in F. BIERMANN and S. BAUER (eds), A World Environment Organization – Solution or threat for effective international environmental governance?, Cornwall, Ashgate, 2005, 145-170. 
 
MCCLEAN D., Transnational organized crime, a commentary on the UN Convention and its Protocols, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007, 567p. 
 
 
Contribution in magazines 
 
ABOTSI K.E., GALIZZI P. and HERKLOTZ A., “Wildlife crime and degradation in Africa : an analysis of the current crisis and prospects for a secure future”, Fordham Envtl. L. Rev. 2015-2016, Vol. 27, 394-441. 
 
AKELLA A.S. and ALLAN C., “Dismantling wildlife crime : executive summary”, X 2012, 1-15. (available at http://www.changewildlifeconsumers.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/03/Disman…
 
ANDRADE O., “Environmental Crime Summit”, Envtl. Pol’y & L. 2012, Vol. 42, 156-168. 
 
ASNER M.A, “To catch a wildlife thief : Strategies and suggestions for the fight against illegal wildlife trafficking”, U. Pa. Asian L. Rev. 2016, Vol. 12, 1-20. 
 
BALAZS E., “From poaching to financing terrorism. Thoughts on poaching endangering society”, J. E.-Eur. Crim. L. 2016, 190-200. 
 
BARRIE G., “CITES : a 2005 assessment”, J. S. Afr. L. 2006, 182-189. 
 
BIERMANN F., “Reforming global environmental governance : The case for a United Nations Environment Organization (UNEO)”, Stakeholder Forum, SDG2012. (available at http://www.stakeholderforum.org/fileadmin/files/WEO%20Biermann%20FINAL…
 
BIERMANN F., “The case for a World Environment Organization”, Environmental Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, November 2000, Vol. 42 Issue 9, 22-32. (available at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266001968_The_Case_for_a_World… Organization)  
 
BOISTER N., “The cooperation provisions of the UN Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime : a ‘toolbox’ rarely used?”, Int’l Crim. L. Rev. 2016, Vol.16, 39-70. 
 
BORGSTEDE G., “Cultural property, the Palermo Convention, and transnational organized crime”, I. J. C. P. 2014, Vol.21, 281-290. 
 
BRUNELLE-QURAISHI O., “Assessing the relevancy and efficacy of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption : a comparative analysis”, Notre Dame J. Int’l & Comp. L. 2011-2012, Vol.2, 101-166. 
 
CIAVAGLIA S., DRIDAN H., KIRKBRIDE K.P. and LINACRE A., “Current issues with the investigation of wildlife crime in Australia : Problems and opportunities for improvement”, J. Int’l Wildlife L. & Pol. 2015, Vol. 18 Issue 3, 244-263. 
 
CLOUGH J., “A world of difference : The Budapest Convention on Cybercrime and the challenges of harmonization”, Monash U. L. Rev. 2014, Vol. 40, 698-736. 
 
DEL CASTILLO F., “The European Union’s approach in the fight against wildlife trafficking: Challenges ahead”, J. Int. Wildlife L. & Pol. 2016, Vol. 19, issue 1, 1-21. 
 
GERCKE M., “10 years Convention on Cybercrime : Achievements and failures of the Council of Europe’s instrument in the fight against internet-related crimes”, J. Information L. & Tech. 2011, Vol. 12 Issue 5, 142-149. 
 
GUYMON C.D., “International legal mechanisms for combating transnational organized crime: The need for a multilateral convention”, Berkeley Journ. Int’l L. 2000, Vol. 18 issue 1, 53-101. 
 
HADSHARD J., “Combatting transnational crime in Africa:  problems and perspectives”, J. Afr. L. 2006, Vol.50, 145-160. 
 
HAN C-R and NELEN H., “Decoupling policy and practise in the fight against wildlife smuggling”, Brit. J. Criminol October 10 2015. (available at http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/10/09/bjc.azv109.abstr…
 
HEINTSCHELL VON HEINEGG W., “Territorial sovereignty and neutrality in cyberspace”, Int’l L. Stud. Ser. US Naval War. Col. i 2013, Vol. 89, 123-156. 
 
HINSLEY A., LEE T.E., HARRISON J.R. and ROBERTS D.L., “Estimating the extent and structure of trade in horticultural orchids via social media”, Conservation Biology 2016, Vol. 30 No. 5, 1038-1047. 
 
HUMAIR F., HUMAIR L., KUHN F. and KUEFFER C., “E-commerce trade in invasive plants”, Conservation Biology 2015, Vol. 29, No.6, 1658-1665. 
 
HUMMEL M.L., “Internet terrorism”, Homeland Security Rev. 2008, Vol. 2, 117-130. 
 
IZZO J.B., “PC pets for a price : Combating online and traditional wildlife crime through international harmonization and authoritative policies”, Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol’y Rev. 2009-2010, Vol. 34, 965-998. 
 
JARVIS P., “Participating in the activities of an organised crime group : the new offence”, Crim. L. R. 2015, Vol.10, 766-788. 
 
JOUTSEN M. and GRAYCAR A., “When experts and diplomats agree : Negotiating peer review of United Nations Convention Against Corruption”, Global Governance 2012, Vol.18, 425-439. 
 
KARESH W.B., COOK R.A., BENNETT E.L. and NEWCOMB J., “Wildlife trade and global disease emergence”, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2005, Vol. 11, 1000-1002. (available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16022772
 
KAZMAR J.P., “The international illegal plant and wildlife trade : Biological genocide?”, U. C. Davis J. Int’l L. & Pol’y 2000, Vol.6, 105-129. 
 
KEMP L., “Realpolitik and reform at Rio +20 : The politics of reforming United Nations Environment Programme”, Earth System Governance May 2014, No. 30. 
 
KREDER J.A. and NINTRUP J., “Antiquity meets the Modern Age: eBay’s potential criminal liability for counterfeit and stolen international antiquity sales”, Case W. Res. J.L. Tech. & Internet 2014, Vol. 5, 143-178. 
 
KROST T., “The world’s laws in American justice : the foreign law provisions of the 2008 Lacey Act Amendments”, J. Envtl. Publ. Health L. 2013, Vol. 8, Issue 1, 55-79. 
 
LEHRER A., “Note: Tiffany v. eBay: its impact and implications on the doctrines of secondary trademark and copyright infringement”, B.U. J. SCI. & TECH. L. 2012, Vol. 18, 373-411. 
 
LIN J., “Tackling Southeast Asia’s illegal wildlife trade”, S.Y.B.I.L. 2005, Vol.9, 191-208. 
 
LOTRIONTE C., “State sovereignty and self-defense in cyberspace: a normative framework for balancing Legal rights”, Emory Int’l L. Rev. 2012, Vol. 26, 825-919. 
 
MANLEY M.V., “The (inter)national strategy : An ivory trade ban in the United States and China”, Fordham Int’l L.J. 2015, Vol. 38,  1511-1586. 
 
MARSHALL D., “An organization for the world environment : Three models and analysis”, Geo. Int’l Envtl. L. Rev. 2002-2003, Vol. 15, 79-103. 
 
MERCADO E., “As long as “IT” is not counterfeit: Holding eBay liable for secondary trademark infringements in the wake of LMVH and Tiffany Inc.”, Cardozo Arts & Ent. L.J. 2010-2011, Vol. 28, 114-148. 
 
ORSCHELN C.J., “Bad new Birkins: Counterfeit in luxury brands”, J. MARSHALL REV. INTELL. PROP. L. 2015, Vol. 14, 249-267. 
 
MIKURIYA K., “Illicit wildlife trade and the role of customs”, U. Pa. Asian L. Rev. 2016, Vol. 12, 55-64. 
 
MURPHY G., “Upgrading the United Nations Environmental Programme to the needs of the 21th century”, E-International Relations, May 24, 2016. (available at http://www.eir.info/2016/05/24/upgrading-the-united-nations-environment…
 
PANJABI R.K.L., “For trinkets, tonics, and terrorism : International wildlife poaching in the twenty-first century”, Ga. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 2014, Vol.43, 1-92. 
 
PANTALONY M., “Contributing to infringement: Intermediary liability after Tiffany v. eBay and Louis Vuitton v. Akanoc”, Trademark Rep. 2015, Vol. 105, 709-731. 
 
SANDAGE J., “Keynote speech : Global corruption and the universal approach of the United Nations Conventions against Corruption”, Osgoode Hall L. J. 2015-2016, Vol.53, 7-30. 
 
SAUNDERS K.M. and BERGER-WALLISER G., “The liability of online markets for counterfeit goods: A comparative analysis of secondary trademark infringement in the United States and Europe”, Nw. J. Int’l L. & Bus. 2011-2012, Vol. 32, 37-92 
 
SOUTH N. and WYATT T., “Comparing illicit trades in wildlife and drugs : An exploratory study”, Rouledge Taylor & Francis Group June 2013, 538-561.                                                                                                                                   (available at http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01639625.2010.483162). 
 
SHAW J., “CITES : A toothless tiger in the black market for traditional Chinese medicines”, Dalhousie J. Legal Stud. 2003, Vol.12, 135-173. 
 
TOMKINS K., “Police, law enforcement and the environment”, Current Issues Crim. 20042005, Vol. 16, 294-306. 
 
TRIPOLI C.L., “Fashion forward: The need for a proactive approach to the counterfeit epidemic”, Brook. J. Int’l L. 2015-2016, Vol. 41, 875-916. 
 
VAN DAMME Y. and DE BONDT W., “UNTOC : Sterk universeel wapen tegen mensenhandel en mensensmokkel vandaag?”, Wereldbeeld Tijdschrift Voor Verenigde Naties 2010, jaargang 54 nr. 154. (available at https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/1177705/file/6726438); 
 
WEBER A.M., “The Council of Europe’s Convention on Cybercrime”, Berkeley Tech. L.J. 2003, Vol.18, 425-446. 
 
WWF and TRAFFICK, “Illicit wildlife trafficking : an environmental, economic and social issue”, Perspectives 2014, Issue No. 14, 1-12. (available at http://www.wildlex.org/literature/illicit-wildlife-trafficking-an-envir… 
 
X, “Bringing compliance and enforcement agencies together to maintain environmental”, Glob. Envtl. L. Ann. 2013, 59-136. 
 
ZIMMERMAN M., “The Black market for wildlife : combating transnational organized crime in the illegal wildlife trade”, Vand. J. Transnat’l L. 2003, Vol.36, 1657-1689. 
 
 
Reports 
 
‘Bidding for extinction’, International Fund for Animal Welfare (2007), available at http://www.ifaw.org/sites/default/files/Report%202007%20Bidding%20for%2…  
 
‘Caught in the web : Wildlife trade on the internet’, International Fund for Animal Welfare (2005), available at http://www.ifaw.org/sites/default/files/Report%202005%20Caught%20in%20t… 0UK.pdf  
 
‘Comprehensive study on cybercrime’, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2013), available at https://www.unodc.org/documents/organizedcrime/UNODC_CCPCJ_EG.4_2013/CY… 
 
CITES WORLD – Official Newsletter of the Parties, Issue Number 16 – December 2005, available at https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/news/world/16.pdf 
 
‘Elephants on high streets : an investigation into ivory trade in the UK’, International Fund for Animal Welfare (2004), available at http://www.ifaw.org/united-states/node/6338  
 
‘Elephant vs Mouse : An investigation of the ivory trade on Craigslist’, TRAFFIC (2015), available at http://www.ifaw.org/sites/default/files/IFAW-craigslist-ivory-report-20…  
 
‘Empty Threat 2015 : Does the law combat illegal wildlife trade?, DLA PIPER (2015), available at  https://www.dlapiper.com/~/media/Files/News/2015/05/IllegalWildlifeTrad… 
 
‘Environmental Crime Programme’, Interpol (2009-2010), available at https://www.interpol.int/ 
 
‘EU Action Plan against Wildlife Trafficking: One year after – Overview of actions and initiatives taken by the EU Member States and the European Commission, available at http://ec.europa.eu/environment/cites/pdf/Achievements_WAP_overview.pdf 
 
HAKEN J., “Transnational Crime in the Developing World”, Global Financial Integrity February 2011, available at http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/transcrime/gf… _web.pdf 
 
‘Invasive species and E-Commerce’, Invasive Species Advisory Committee (2012), available at https://www.anstaskforce.gov/Meetings/2016_November/6a_%20NISC%20EComme…  
 
 ‘Killing with Keystrokes’, International Fund for Animal Welfare (2008), available at http://www.ifaw.org/sites/default/files/FINAL%20Killing%20with%20Keystr… 0report%202011.pdf  
 
‘Killing with keystrokes 2.0’, International Fund for Animal Welfare (2011), available at http://www.ifaw.org/sites/default/files/FINAL%20Killing%20with%20Keystr… 0report%202011.pdf 
 
LAWSON K. and VINES A., “Global impacts of the illegal wildlife trade : The costs of crime, insecurity and institutional erosion”, The Royal Institute of International Affairs February 2014, available at : https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/public/Research/A… .pdf 
 
‘Living Planet Report 2016 : Risk and resilience in a new area’, World Wide Fund For Nature (2016), available at https://wwf.be/nl/living-planet-report-2016/ 
 
‘Moving targets : Tracking online sales of illegal wildlife products in China’, TRAFFIC (2016), available at http://static1.1.sqspcdn.com/static/f/157301/26245505/1432122394320/Chi…  
 
‘Policing the trafficking of wildlife : Is there anything to learn from law enforcement responses to drugs and firearms trafficking?’ The Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime (2014), available at  http://globalinitiative.net/wildlifecrime/ 
 
‘Project Web : An investigation into the ivory trade over the internet within the European Union’, Interpol and IFAW (2013), available at http://www.ifaw.org/united-states/resourcecentre/project-web-investigat… 
 
‘Report on Environmental Crime’, EnviCrimeNet (2016), available at http://envicrimenet.eu/EN/images/docs/envicrimenet%20report%20on%20envi… crime.pdf 
 
‘The Future We Want’, United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (2012), available at http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/rio20_outcome_document_complet… 
 
‘The rise of environmental crime – a growing threat to natural resources, peace, development and security’, UNEP and INTERPOL (2016), available at  http://unep.org/documents/itw/environmental_crimes.pdf 
 
‘Tightening the net : Towards a global legal framework on transnational Organized Environmental Crime’ Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime (2015), available at  https://www.unodc.org/documents/congress/backgroundinformation/NGO/GIAT… 
 
‘Trading faces : A rapid assessment on the use of Facebook to trade wildlife in Peninsular Malaysia’, TRAFFIC (2016), available at http://www.trafficj.org/publication/16_Trading_Faces.pdf (last consulted on 19/04/17). 
 
‘The Globalisation of crime – A Transnational Organized Crime Threat Assessment’, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, June 2010, available at  https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-andanalysis/tocta/TOCTA_Report_201…  
 
‘The RIO Declaration on Environment and Development’, The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (1992), available at http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/RIO_E.PDF 
 
‘Wanted – Dead or alive : Exposing online trade in endangered species’, International Fund for Animal Welfare (2014), available at http://www.ifaw.org/sites/default/files/IFAWWanted-Dead-or-Alive-Exposi…  
 
‘World Wildlife Crime Report: trafficking in protected species’, UNODC (2016), available at https://www.unodc.org/documents/data-andanalysis/wildlife/World_Wildlif… 
 
‘Wildlife and forest crime : Analytic Toolkit (revised version)’, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2012), available at https://www.unodc.org/documents/Wildlife/Toolkit_e.pdf 
 
 
Case law 
 
Bundesgerichtshof (DE) 11 March 2004, Case No. I ZR 30401, dejure.org 
 
District Court (US) 14 July 2008, 576 F. Supp.2d 463 
 
ECJ 12 July 2011, No. C-324/09, ECLI:EU:C:2011:474. 
 
Tribunal de Commerce de Paris (FR) 30 June 2008, SA Louis Vuitton Malletier v. eBay 
 
 
Thesis / PhD 
 
GOETEYN N., Decision-making, compliance and international environmental governance : a legal analysis, published, PhD dissertation Law UGent, 2012, https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/2986625/file/4336068.pdf, 36. 
 
 
Websites 
 
’12. United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime’, https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=TREATY&mtdsg_no=XVII… (last consulted on 21/11/2016) 
 
‘Animals and wildlife products policy’, eBay, http://pages.ebay.com/help/policies/wildlife.html (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
AWFORD J., “Bottled birds: How callous smugglers cram cockatoos into plastic bottles to get them through customs”, Mail Online, 4 May 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3067691/Smugglers-birds-plastic… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
BAJPAI P., “What is Tencent?”, Investopedia, 30 November 2016, http://www.investopedia.com/articles/insights/113016/what-tencent-baba-… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
‘Beleid voor dieren en wildproducten’, eBay, http://pages.benl.ebay.be/help/policies/wildlife.html (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
BREWER-HAY R., “eBay to institute global ban on ivory sales”, eBay, 20 October 2008, https://www.ebayinc.com/stories/news/ebay-to-institute-global-ban-on-iv… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
‘Chart of signatures and ratifications of treaty 185’, http://www.coe.int/en/web/conventions/full-list/-/conventions/treaty/18… (last consulted on 10/05/17) 
 
‘CITES External Trust Fund (QTL) 2016-2017 – Status of contributions as of 29 February 2017 (in US dollars’, CITES, https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/disc/funds/status_of_external… TES_External_Trust_Fund.pdf (last consulted on 30/03/17) 
 
DIEP F., “How the internet has made wildlife smuggling a ‘low-risk activity’”, Pacific Standard, 6 May 2016, https://psmag.com/how-the-internet-has-made-wildlife-smuggling-alow-ris… (last consulted on 19/04/17). 
 
DUNNE D.S., HENRY L.A. and MCDONOUGH M.M, “L’Oréal and eBay settle dispute over counterfeit sales” Lexology, 24 January 2014, http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=0a5c9de7-f277-472a-a333-a… (last consulted on 27/04/17). 
 
eBay News Team, “eBay to boost consumer confidence with launch of eBay Authenticate”, eBay, 12 January 2017, https://www.ebayinc.com/stories/news/ebay-to-boost-consumerconfidence-w… (last consulted on 27/04/17). 
 
KAHUMBU P. and HALLIDAY A., “Case proven : ivory trafficking funds terrorism”, The Guardian, 30 August 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/africawild/2015/aug/30/case-pro… (last consulted on 30/03/17). 
 
KASNOFF C., “CITES Agreement to Fight Wildlife Cybercrime”, Tigers in Crisis, 4 October 2016, http://www.tigersincrisis.com/journal/cites-agreement-to-fight-wildlife… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
LI S., “TRAFFIC and Tencent sign agreement to tackle illicit wildlife trade through social media networks”, TRAFFIC, 24 November 2015, http://www.traffic.org/home/2015/11/24/traffic-and-tencent-sign-agreeme… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
LI S., “Youth and internet giants speak out against wildlife cybercrime”, TRAFFIC, 3 March 2017, http://www.traffic.org/home/2017/3/2/youth-and-internet-giants-speak-ou… (last consulted on 19/04/19) 
 
LUMB D., “Ebay, Etsy, Microsoft and others vow to ban illegal wildlife trading”, Engadget, 8 December 2016, https://www.engadget.com/2016/08/12/ebay-etsy-microsoft-and-othersvow-t… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
MONTAGNON R. and SMITH J., “L’Oréal v. eBay: good news for brand owners”, Thomson Reuters Practical Law, 28 July 2011, https://uk.practicallaw.thomsonreuters.com/9-5070026?__lrTS=20170421145… Page=true&bhcp=1 (last consulted on 27/04/17). 
 
NOWAK K., “CITES alone cannot combat illegal wildlife trade”, South African Institute of International Affairs September 2016, http://conservationaction.co.za/resources/reports/citesalone-cannot-com… (last consulted on 15/11/2016) 
 
NOWAK K., “The world has a chance to make the wild animal trade more humane”, National Geographic, 26 February 2016, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/02/160226-animaltrade-animal-we… (last consulted on 19/04/17). 
 
PANELLA E., “EU Wildlife trafficking action plan anniversary: Speed up implementation”, IFAW, 22 February 2017, http://www.ifaw.org/european-union/news/eu-wildlife-traffickingaction-p… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
PARKE E., “’Cruel’ Kimberley wildlife smuggling scheme condemned as man fined $13,000”, ABC News, è November 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-11-07/kimberleywildlife-smuggling-opera… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
RIEFA C., “CJEU Case C 324/09 L’Oreal v eBay: The end of online auction intermediary liability as we know it”,  Recent Developments in European Consumer Law, 18 July 2011, http://recent-ecl.blogspot.be/2011/07/cjeu-case-c-32409-loreal-v-ebay-e… (last consulted on 27/04/17) 
 
RUBIN B.F., “Is that Hermes real? With eBay Authenticate you’ll know for sure”, CNET, 12 January 2017, https://www.cnet.com/news/ebay-authenticate-is-that-hermes-rolex-real-f… (last consulted on 27/04/17). 
 
SALMON T., “Past, present and future of the Working Group on E-Commerce of Specimens of CITES-Listed Species”, CITES, X, https://cites.org/eng/news/world/19/2.php (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
‘Species Search Results’, ECOS Environmental Conservation Online System, https://ecos.fws.gov/ecp0/reports/ad-hoc-species- report?kingdom=V&kingdom=I&status=E&status=T&status=EmE&status=EmT&status=EX PE&status=EXPN&staus=SAE&status=SAT&mapstatus=3&fcrithab=on&fstatus=on&fspecr ule=on&finvpop=on&fgroup=on&header=Listed+Animals (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
‘Speech by the Deputy Executive Director of UNODC Mr. Aldo Lale-Demoz’, World Wildlife Day, March 2015,  http://wildlifeday.org/content/speeches?field_year_speech_value%5Bvalue… D=&=Apply (last consulted on 15/11/2016) 
 
‘United Nations Convention against Corruption Signature and Ratification Status as of 12 December 2016’, UNODC, http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories.html. (last consulted on 12/05/17). 
 
VASQUEZ J.C., “African Elephant Fund launched at CITES meeting”, CITES, 19 August 2011, https://cites.org/eng/news/pr/2011/20110819_SC61.php (last consulted on 07/05/17) 
 
‘Wildlife-Friendly Online Trade: Standardized Policy Framework for e-Commerce and Social Media Companies’, 12 August 2016 , available at http://assets.worldwildlife.org/publications/924/files/original/NEWEST_… nline_TradeStandardized_Wildlife_Policy_Framework_for_Online_Companies.pdf?1470937403&_ga=1. 22705592.2035074545.1471004137 (last consulted on 10/05/17) 
 
WILLIAMS T., “Illegal trade in endangered wildlife thriving on eBay despite controls”, The Guardian, 21 April 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/21/illegaltrade-in-end… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
WU J., “Wildlife trade on the internet”, CITES, X, https://cites.org/eng/news/world/19/6.php (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
X, “About INTERPOL : Overview”, INTERPOL, X, https://www.interpol.int/AboutINTERPOL/Overview (last consulted on 22/12/2016). 
 
X, “About UNODC”, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, X, https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/about-unodc/index.html?ref=menutop (last consulted on 15/11/2016) 
 
X, “Anti-wildlife trafficking operation results in global arrests and seizures”, INTERPOL, 2 March 2017, https://www.interpol.int/News-and-media/News/2017/N2017-022 (last consulted on 29/03/17) 
 
X, “Brochure : International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime”, ICCWC, X, https://cites.org/sites/default/files/eng/prog/iccwc/iccwc_brochure.pdf (last consulted on 07/05/17). 
 
X, “China to ban ivory trade by the end of 2017”, The Guardian, 30 December 2016, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/dec/30/china-ban-ivory-tra… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
X, “Chinese e-commerce companies crack down on illegal wildlife trade”, WWF, 8 June 2012, http://wwf.panda.org/?205140/Chinese-e-commerce-companies-crack-down-on… (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
X, “CITES”, Wikipedia, X, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CITES (last consulted on 12/05/17). 
 
X, “CITES commends leading Chinese courier companies’ zero tolerance towards illegal wildlife trade”, CITES, 3 March 2015, https://cites.org/eng/courier_pledge_cn (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
X, “Committee and working groups”, INTERPOL, X, https://www.interpol.int/Crimeareas/Environmental-crime/Committee-and-W… (last consulted on 22/12/2016). 
 
X, “CSI Wildlife: Kenyan Wildlife Service’s wildlife forensic lab”, Agroberichten, 30 November 2016, http://www.agroberichtenbuitenland.nl/kenia/csi-wildlife-kenyan-wildlif… (last consulted on 07/05/17). 
 
X, “eBay drives commitment to fight counterfeiting and piracy”, eBay, 28 October 2014, https://www.ebayinc.com/stories/press-room/uk/ebay-drives-commitment-to… (last consulted on 27/04/17). 
 
X, “EnviCrimeNet”, Environmental Crime Network, X, http://envicrimenet.eu/EN/ (last consulted on 22/12/2016). 
 
X, “Environmental Crime”, INTERPOL, X, https://www.interpol.int/Crimeareas/Environmental-crime/Environmental-c… (last consulted on 22/12/2016). 
 
X, “Environmental Programme”, WCO, X, http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/enforcementand-compliance/activities-an… (last consulted on 29/03/17). 
 
X, “Funding for UN environment – Regular budget”, UNEP, X, http://web.unep.org/about/funding/about/funding/our-funding/regular-bud… (last consulted on 29/03/17). 
 
X, “History”, INTERPOL, X, https://www.interpol.int/About-INTERPOL/History (last consulted on 22/12/2016). 
 
X, “History of Europol”, X, X, http://people.exeter.ac.uk/watupman/undergrad/pollard/html/history.htm (last consulted on 22/12/2016). 
 
X, “How dogs are tackling wildlife crime”, WWF, X, http://tigers.panda.org/news/snifferdogs/ (last consulted on 30/03/2017). 
 
X, “How is CITES financed?” CITES, X, https://www.cites.org/eng/disc/fund.php (last consulted on 20/03/2017). 
 
X, “Illicit trafficking in endangered animal species”, Europol, X, https://www.europol.europa.eu/crime-areas-and-trends/crime-areas/enviro… (last consulted on 22/12/2016). 
 
X, “Impact of invasive alien species”, WWF, X, http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/species/problems/invasive_species/ (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
X, “India launches Tigernet”, TRAFFIC, 7 January 2009, http://www.traffic.org/home/2010/1/7/india-launches-tigernet.html (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
X, “International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime”, CITES, X, https://cites.org/eng/prog/iccwc.php (last consulted on 15/11/2016) 
 
X, “International cooperation”, UNODC, X, https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/organizedcrime/international-cooperation… (last consulted on 21/11/2016) 
 
X, “Introducing eBay Authenticate: a service powered by a network of professional authenticators”, eBay, X, http://pages.ebay.com/authentication/?afsrc=1&rmvSB=true (last consulted on 27/04/17). 
 
X, “Invasive species”, IUCN, X, https://www.iucn.org/theme/species/our-work/invasivespecies (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
X, “Invasive species”, Wikipedia, X, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasive_species (last consulted on 19/04/17) 
 
X, “ITTO-CITES Programme on tree species”, CITES, X, https://cites.org/eng/prog/itto.php (last consulted on 07/05/17). 
 
X, “Living Planet Report 2016”, WWF, X, https://wwf.be/nl/living-planet-report2016/?gclid=CjwKEAjw-uDABRDPz4-0t… (Last consulted on 15/11/2016) 
 
X, “The Living Planet Report 2016 : threats, pressures and addressing the challenges”, ZSL Institute of Zoology, 26th of November 2016, https://www.zsl.org/science/whats-on/theliving-planet-report-2016-threa… (last consulted on 15/11/2016) 
 
X, “Tiffany Inc. v. eBay Inc.”, Wikipedia, 3 November 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiffany_Inc._v._eBay,_Inc. (last consulted on 27/04/17). 
 
X, “Tools”, CITES, X, https://www.cites.org/eng/prog/iccwc.php/Tools (last consulted on 29/04/17). 
 
X, “United Nations Convention Against Corruption”, Wikipedia, last modified on 5 October 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Convention_against_Corrupt… _ratifications_and_entry_into_force (last consulted on 15/11/2016) 
 
X, “United Nations Environment Programme”, UNEP, X, http://www.fao.org/gtos/sponsrs/unepinfo.html (last consulted on 22/12/2016). 
 
X, “United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime”, Wikipedia, last modified on 15 Marsh 2013, https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Office_on_Drugs_and_Crime (last consulted on 15/11/2016) 
 
X, “WCO in brief”, WCO X , http://www.wcoomd.org/en/about-us/what-is-the-wco.aspx (last consulted on 21/03/2017). 
 
X, “What is CITES?”, CITES, X, https://www.cites.org/eng/disc/what.php (last consulted on 15/11/2016) 
 
X, “What is the Global Initiative?”, Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, X, http://globalinitiative.net/about/ (last consulted on 30/03/17). 
 
X, “What is INTERPOL?”, INTERPOL, X, https://www.interpol.int/ipsgapp/educational/what-is-interpol.html (last consulted on 22/12/2016). 
 
ZHANG S., “Tencent says no to online illegal wildlife trade”, TRAFFIC, 22 May 2015, http://www.ifaw.org/united-states/news/tencent-says-no-online-illegal-w… (last consulted on 19/04/17)