Climate Change Induced Migration: Towards a Righteous Approach?

Anne Verhelst
Deze thesis onderzoekt het juridisch kader voor de bescherming van klimaatmigranten - mensen die gedwongen zijn te verhuizen omwille van de gevolgen van de opwarming van de aarde. Bestaat er recht dat deze mensen voldoende bescherming kan bieden? Is er nood aan nieuwe wetgeving, en zo ja, op welk niveau?

Klimaatmigratie: de ultieme uitdaging?

Spitsbergen, een eilandengroep in de Noordelijke IJszee, is het meest noordelijk bewoonde gebied ter wereld, met het meest noordelijk gelegen café, de meest noordelijk gelegen supermarkt en de meest noordelijk gelegen universiteit. Op Spitsbergen wonen er meer ijsberen dan mensen.

U kent het wel, het beeld van de vale, uitgehongerde ijsbeer, angstig wegdrijvend op een ijsschots. Beeld u nu in dat dit niet langer een ijsbeer is, maar een mens. Inderdaad, meer dan 100 Spitsbergers waren vorig jaar gedwongen het eiland te verlaten: de opwarming van de aarde zorgde er voor catastrofale overstromingen. Tot op heden is er geen wettelijk kader voor deze ‘gedwongen verhuis’ van de Spitsbergers. Kan het recht soelaas bieden voor dit menselijk drama?

 

Spitsbergen, het meest noordelijke bewoonde gebied ter wereld.

Waarheen?

Wetenschappers zijn tot de conclusie gekomen dat de opwarming van de aarde niet enkel de natuur bedreigt, maar ook ons als mens. Het meest geciteerde voorbeeld is dat van het ‘zinkende eiland’ Tuvalu in de Stille Oceaan. Waar moeten deze mensen heen wanneer hun eiland verzwelgt door het steeds hoger wordende waterpeil? En waarheen dienen de inwoners van Manhattan te vluchten wanneer zij hun betonnen omwalling zien overstromen? Waar is er plaats voor de nomaden uit de Sahel, wanneer zij door toegenomen droogte niet langer voedsel vinden?

Migratie is een fenomeen zo oud als de mensheid, maar het recht is er nog niet in geslaagd deze dynamiek voldoende te omvatten. Een voorbeeld: het nationale of Europese recht lijkt, zowel voor de vluchtelingen die sinds de migratiecrisis de Middellandse Zee oversteken als voor vele Europeanen, geen oplossing te bieden. Betekent dit dat voor de aanstaande klimaatmigratiecrisis, waarvan voorspeld wordt dat die vele keren groter in omvang zal zijn, het recht ook geen hulp kan bieden? Momenteel bestaat er geen aanvaarde definitie van ‘klimaatmigrant’, en bijgevolg hebben deze mensen geen specifieke rechten of plichten. Ook de staten waaruit migranten vertrekken en zij die hen ontvangen zijn niet aan regels onderworpen. De vraag is dus waar de oplossing voor dit globale probleem gezocht moet worden: is dit op het niveau van de Verenigde Naties? Of kunnen mensenrechten deze situatie overzien? Zoekt men beter binnen het internationaal milieurecht of het vluchtelingenrecht? Moeten er nieuwe instellingen, verdragen, instrumenten gecreëerd worden voor klimaatmigratie?

Waarheen niet?

Ons onderzoek over klimaatmigratie wees alvast uit dat er twee paden zijn die niet gevolgd kunnen worden. Ten eerste werd het duidelijk dat het vluchtelingenrecht geen oplossing kan bieden: volgens het Verdrag van Genève moet een persoon ‘vervolgd worden in een situatie van geweld’ om als vluchteling aangemerkt te kunnen worden. Een klimaatmigrant beantwoordt hier niet aan. Nieuw-Zeelandse rechtbanken oordeelden in die lijn reeds dat de inwoners van Tuvalu niet voldoen aan de drempelcriteria om van de bescherming als vluchteling te genieten.

Ten tweede is het weinig waarschijnlijk dat er nieuwe instellingen, verdragen of instrumenten zullen worden gecreëerd voor klimaatmigranten. Men kan in het complexe landschap van internationaal recht geen instellingen blijven creëren, aangezien deze veel geld verbruiken en voortdurende politieke steun nodig hebben.

Mensenrechten en de rechter

Waar ligt de oplossing dan wel? Je zou kunnen stellen dat het mensenrecht op leven, op huisvesting en op een goede levensstandaard wordt geschonden in geval van een gedwongen verhuis omwille van de klimaatverandering - maar wat dan? Het mensenrechtenregime is ongetwijfeld sterk in termen van prestige, maar biedt jammer genoeg weinig concrete hulp in de alledaagse wereld. “Dwing de geschonden mensenrechten af voor de rechtbank”, is de natuurlijke reflex van vele juristen. Echter, men mag ‘de rechtbank’ niet zien als de heilige graal van rechtvaardigheid. Ten eerste zijn er verscheidene niet-juridische obstakels om tot de rechter te geraken, zoals financieel onvermogen, onbekendheid met het recht, geslacht en macht. Daarenboven mag men er niet van uitgaan dat iedereen het Westerse rechtssysteem als rechtvaardig beoordeelt; uit onderzoek blijkt immers dat buurtrechtbanken of lokale gemeenschapssystemen vaak als meer legitiem aanzien worden.

Naar een regionale aanpak

Wij ontdekten dat het voornaamste probleem in de benadering van klimaatmigratie ligt in de veronderstelling dat ‘aangezien het om een globaal probleem gaat, een globale oplossing gezocht dient te worden’. Echter, er bestaat zoiets als het subsidiariteitsprincipe, volgens hetwelk problemen moeten aangepakt worden op het niveau waarop dit het meest efficiënt is. In het onderzoek botsten wij dan ook op de vele voordelen van een regionale aanpak van klimaatmigratie. Wetenschappelijk onderzoekt toont immers aan dat verschillende regio’s verschillend getroffen zullen worden, en dat zij ook verschillende capaciteiten hebben om zich te weren. Bovendien zijn de regionale en lokale beleidsverantwoordelijken beter bekend met de noden en wensen van ‘hun’ mensen, aangezien zij hier dichter bij betrokken zijn. In het algemeen hebben landen die tot dezelfde regio behoren een gelijkaardige gevoeligheid aan klimatologische shocks, en zijn er historische, economische en politieke banden tussen de staten, die hen ‘dwingen’ tot samenwerking. Tot slot bestaan er reeds verschillende regionale organisaties, zodat er geen nieuwe structuren moeten opgezet worden. Deze voordelen zagen wij bevestigd in het tweede (politieke) luik van ons onderzoek, toegespitst op Nieuw-Zeeland, Kiribati, Zuid-Afrika en Botswana: doordat er meer symmetrie is, heeft een regionale aanpak meer kans op slagen.

Op Tuvalu wil men niet langer enkel als slachtoffer gezien worden

Besluit

In dit onderzoek ontdekten we foute veronderstellingen die aanwezig zijn in de internationale politiek en het internationaal recht. Men mag niet veronderstellen dat rechtvaardigheid steeds in de rechtbank te vinden is, dat migratie een ‘one size fits all’-oplossing is, en dat initiatieven op een lager niveau dan de Verenigde Naties minder daadkrachtig zijn. Indien men afstand doet van deze verkeerde opvattingen, zal men verder geraken in de bescherming van klimaatmigranten.

Of het recht in deze uiterst complexe materie hét aangewezen middel is, blijft de vraag. Men kan alleen hopen een zekere rechtvaardigheid te vinden in de onrechtvaardigheid, en een zekere orde in de chaos, zoals ooit het einde van de winter beslist het begin van de lente aankondigde. Of zoals R. M. Rilke het zei: ‘Het is weer lente. De aarde is zoals een kind dat gedichten vanbuiten kent’.

Bibliografie

 

1. Legislation, regulation and principles

International

 UN, Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 (A/Res/70/1) (2015).

 

UNFCCC, Adoption of the Paris Agreement (FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1) (2015).

 

OHCHR, Climate Change Mapping Report (A/HRC/25/53) (2013).

 

UNFCCC, Cancun Agreements: Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (UN Dec. 1/CP.16) (2011).

 

Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, entry into force on 3 May 2008, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, 3 December 2006.

 

UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Pinheiro Principles on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2005/17) (2005).

 

UNFCCC, entry into force on 21 March 1994, 1771 U.N.T.S. 107, 9 May 1992.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, entry into force on 23 March 1976, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, 16 December 1966.

Geneva Convention on the Protection of Refugees, entry into force on 22 April 1954, 189 U.N.T.S. 150, 28 July 1951.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNGA Res. 217 A (III)) (10 December 1948).

 

HRC Resolutions

HRC, Resolution 32/33/2016 (A/HRC/RES/32/L.2/Rev.1) (18 July 2017).

 

HRC, Resolution 29/2015 (A/HRC/RES/29/L.3) (22 July 2015).

 

HRC, Resolution 28/11/2015(A/HRC/RES/28/11) (6 April 2015).

 

HRC, Resolution 10/4/2009 (A/HRC/RES/10/4) (25 March 2009).

 

HRC, Resolution 7/23/2008(A/HRC/RES/7/23) (28 March 2008).

 

Regional

DS, the Peninsula Principles on Climate Displacement within States (2015), available at http://displacementsolutions.org/peninsula-principles/ (accessed 2 April 2017).

 

EU, Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts on Human, Animal and Plant Health (SWD/2013/0136) (2013).

 

African Union, Convention For The Protection And Assistance Of Internally Displaced Persons In Africa, entry into force on 6 December 2012, 22 October 2008.

 

COE, Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Evaluation, Auditing and Monitoring of Participation and Participation Policies at Local and Regional Level (CM/Rec(2009)2) (2009).

 

EU, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU, legally binding on 1 December 2009, Official Journal of the European Union C326/391, 26 October 2012.

 

Protocol to the Pact on Peace, Security, Democracy and Development in the Great Lakes Region on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons, entry into force on 21 June 2008, 15 December 2006.

Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons in the Great Lakes Region, entry into force May 2008, 30 November 2006.

EU, Council Directive 2001/55/EC of 20 July 2001 on Minimum Standards for Giving Temporary Protection in the Event of a Mass Influx of Displaced Persons and on Measures Promoting a Balance of Efforts Between Member States in Receiving such Persons and Bearing the Consequences Thereof (OJ L 180/96-116) (2001).

 

EU, Treaty on European Union, entry into force on 1 November 1993, Official Journal of the European Communities C 326/13, 26 October 2012.

 

African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, entry into force on 21 October 1986, CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58, 27 June 1981.

 

Cartagena Declaration on Refugees (OAS Doc. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.66/doc.10) (1984).

OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 1001 U.N.T.S 45, 10 September 1969.

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, entry into force on 3 September 1953, ETS 5, 4 November 1950.

 

American Declaration Of The Rights And Duties Of Man (OEA/Ser.L.V/II.82 doc.6 rev.1) (1948).

 

Domestic

New Zealand, S. 207 (1) (a) Immigration Act New Zealand.

US, INA: ACT 244 - TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS, Sec. 244. 1/ [8 U.S.C. 1254].

 

2. Studies and policy documents

International

Summary of Recommended Actions on Human Rights and Climate Change from OHCHR Expert Meeting of 6-7 October 2016, Geneva, Switzerland, retrieved at http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/HRAndClimateChange/Pages/ClimateChange.a… (accessed 2 April 2017).

 

OHCHR, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons (A/HRC/32/35) (2016).

URG, The Policy Report On Human Rights, Climate Change And Cross-Border Displacement: The Role Of The International Human Rights Community In Contributing To Effective And Just Solutions (2015), 28 p., available at http://www.universal-rights.org/urg-policy-reports/human-rights-climate… (accessed 1 April 2017).

UPR, Info Annual Report: Beyond Promises: the impact of the UPR on the Ground (Geneva: UPR Info, 2014), 81 p.

IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report (AR5/2013) (2013).

OHCHR, Report of the Independent Expert on the issue of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Enjoyment of a Safe, Clean, Healthy and Sustainable Development (A/HRC/25/53) (2013).

 

OHCHR, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants - Regional Study: Management of the External Borders of the European Union and its Impact on the Human Rights of Migrants (A/HRC/23/46) (2013).

 

UNDP, Climate Change Adaptation and Migration in the Mekong Delta, Can Tho University (2012).

 

OHCHR, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons - Protection of and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons (A/66/285) (2011).

 

World Bank Study, Human Rights and Climate Change: a Review of the International Legal Dimensions (Washington DC: World Bank, 2011), 145 p.

 

GFMD, Background Paper: Assessing the Relevance and Impact of Climate Change on Migration and Development (Mexico, 2010), available at https://gfmd.org/ (accessed 6 April 2017).

 

GFMD, Note on Climate Change and Migration (Mexico, 2010), available at https://gfmd.org/ (accessed 6 April 2017).

 

UNGA, Report of the Secretary General, Climate Change and its Possible Security Implications (A/64/350) (2009).

 

HRC, Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Relationship between Climate Change and Human Rights (A/HRC/10/61) (2009).

UNDP, Human Development Report on Human Mobility (2009), 217 p., available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/269/hdr_2009_en_complet… (accessed 6 April 2017).

IOM, Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence (2009), 441 p.

UNHCR, Working Paper by A. Guterres, Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Human Displacement (2008), retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/492bb6b92.pdf (accessed 2 April 2017).

 

IASC, Climate Change, Migration and Displacement: Who will be Affected? (2008), available at http://www.unhcr.org/protection/environment/4a1e4fb42/climate-change-mi… (accessed 6 April 2017).

 

UNDP, Human Development Report, Climate Change And Forced Migration: Observations, Projections And Implications (2007), 34 p.

IPCC, Fourth Assessment Report (AR4/2007) (2007).

IOM, Discussion Note: Migration and the Environment (MC/INF/288) (2007), 8 p.

 

Human Rights Committee, Aalbersberg v. The Netherlands (CCPR/C/87/D/1440/2005) (2006).

 

UNGA, 2005 World Summit Outcome (A/60/L.1) (2005).

 

UNFCCC, Organisational Matters: Adoption of Rules of Procedure (FCCC/CP/1996/2) (1996).

UNHCR, The Principle of Non-Refoulement as a Norm of Customary International Law: Response to the Questions Posed to UNHCR by the Federal Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of Germany in Cases 2 BvR 1938/93, 2 BvR 1953/93, 2 BvR 1954/93 (1994).

 

Regional and domestic

Nansen Initiative, Agenda for the Protection of Cross-border Displaced Persons in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change (2015), 56 p., available at https://www.nanseninitiative.org/ (accessed 2 April 2017).

ADB, Addressing Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific: Final Report, ADB Publications (2012), 82 p.

EU, European Parliament Directorate-General for Internal Policies, Climate Refugees: Legal and Policy Responses to Environmentally Induced Migration Study (2011), 86 p.

 

Foresight Report, Migration and Global Environmental Change (London: UK Government Office for Science, 2011), 237 p.

Oxfam, Resettlement by Metadata in the Zambezi Valley: An Independent Study on the Post-flood Resettlement Approach in Mozambique (2008), 88 p., retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/8062422/Reassentamento_pela_Metade_no_Vale_do_Z… (accessed 3 April 2017).

APF, Background Paper on Environment (2007), 186 p., available at http://www.asiapacificforum.net/resources/apf-12-background-paper-acj-r… (accessed 3 April 2017).

 

The Stern Review, The Economics Of Climate Change (2006), available at http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/Part IIIntroduction-.group.pdf (accessed 6 April 2017).

 

3. Preparatory works

International

Geneva Convention on the Protection of Refugees, entry into force on 22 April 1954, 189 U.N.T.S 150, 28 July 1951 - the travaux preparatoires analysed with a commentary by Dr. Paul Weis.

Regional and domestic

Belgium, Proposal of Resolution to Recognize the Status of Environmental Refugees in the International Conventions (introduced by Mr. Philippe Mahoux) (Doc. no. 3-1556/1, Belgian Senate 2005-2006) (2006).

 

4. Statements

 

Statement by K. Gilmore (Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights), at the opening of the OHCHR Expert Meeting on Climate Change and Human Rights (6 October 2016).

Statement by L. Chazoumes (HRC Advisory Committee Member), at the Geneva Pledge on Human Rights and Climate Change Event (13 September 2016).

 

Opening statement by B. Schachter (OHCHR) at the Climate Forced Displacement: Rights and Obligations COP 21 (5 December 2015).

 

Statement by J. Egeland (Secretary General of the Norwegian Refugee Council), speaking at the sidelines of the COP21 climate negotiations (2015).

 

Statement by A. Tong (President of the Republic of Kiribati), at the General Debate of the 63rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly (25 September 2008).

Statement by K. Kang (former Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights), at the Conference on Climate Change, Migration and Human Rights: Addressing Vulnerabilities and Harnessing Opportunities (19 February 2008).

 

5. Case law

1. International or regional courts

ECtHR 20 December 2011, Yoh-Ekale Mwanje v. Belgium, No. 10486/10.

ECtHR 21 January 2011, M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, No. 30696/09.

 

ECtHR 27 May 2008, N. v. United Kingdom, No. 26565/05.

 

ECtHR 20 March 2008, Budayeva and others v. Russia, No. 15339/0220.

 

ECtHR 10 November 2004, Taskin v. Turkey, No. 46117/99.

 

ECtHR 22 June 2004, F. v. United Kingdom, No. 17341/0.

ACHR 27 October 2001, Ogoniland Case (Social and Economic Rights Action Center v. Nigeria), 155/96.

ECtHR 2 May 1997, D. v. United Kingdom, No. 146/1996/767/964.

 

ICJ 6 April 1955, Liechtenstein v. Guatemala (‘Nottebohm case’), available at http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/18/2674.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

2. Domestic courts

New Zealand Supreme Court 20 July 2015, Teitiota v. Chief Executive of the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, [2015] NZSC 107.

 

The Hague Court 24 June 2015, Stichting Urgenda v. the Netherlands, C/09/456689.

 

NZIPT 4 June 2014, AD (Tuvalu), [2014] NZIPT 501370-371.

NZCA 8 May 2014, Teitiota v. Chief Executive of the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, [2014] NZCA 173.

NZHC 26 November 2013, Teitiota .v Chief Executive of the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, [2013] NZHC 3125.

NZIPT 25 June 2013, AF (Kiribati), [2013] NZIPT 800413.

US Supreme Court 20 June 2011, American Electrical Power Co. v. Connecticut, 564 U.S. 410.

 

Refugee Review Tribunal of Australia 10 December 2009, No 0907346, [2009] RRTA 1168.

US District Court for the Northern District of California 30 September 2009, Kivalina v. ExxonMobil Corp. et al., 696 F 3d 849.

US Supreme Court 2 April 2007, Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, 549 U.S. 497.

 

Petition To the Inter-American Commission On Human Rights Violations Resulting From Global Warming Caused By The United States (7 December 2005), available at http://www.inuitcircumpolar.com (accessed 3 April 2017).

Federal High Court of Nigeria 14 November 2005, Nigeria Gbemre v. Shell Petroleum, FHC/B/CS/53/05.

 

Supreme Court of Colombia 22 January 2004, Decision T-025, available at https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Colombia_T-025_200… (accessed 3 April 2017).

 

NZRSAA 19 October 2000, No 72314 [2000]; No 72315 [2000] and No 72316 [2000].

NZRSAA 31 August 2000, No 72313 [2000].

NZRSAA 17 August 2000, Refugee Appeal No 72189/2000 [2000] and Nos 72179–72181 [2000].

NZRSAA 10 August 2000, Refugee Appeal No 72185 [2000]; No 72186 [2000] and Nos 72189–72195 [2000]

Supreme Court of the Philippines 30 July 1993, Oposa et. al. v. Factoran, No. 101083.

Supreme Court of Canada 30 June 1993, Canada (Attorney General) v. Ward, 1993 2 S.C.R. 689.

 

6. Doctrine

Abbott K. and Snidal D., Hard and Soft Law in International Governance, International Organization 54 421-456 (2000).

Achten K., Environmentally Displaced Persons A Game Theoretic View, Linnaeus University (2013), 59 p.

Ackerman F. and Stanton E., The Cost of Climate Change: What We’ll Pay if Global Warming Continues Unchecked, National Resources Defense Council (2008), 33 p.

 

Adolph A., Burchsted D. et al., A Longer Vernal Window: The Role of Winter Coldness and Snowpack in Driving Spring Transitions and Lags, 23 Global Change Biology 1610-1625 (2017).

 

Aguilar G., The Local Relevance of Human Rights: a Methodological Approach, IOB Discussion Paper 2008/4 (2008), 35 p.

 

Albert S., Leon J. et al., Interactions between Sea-level Rise and Wave Exposure on Reef Island Dynamics in the Solomon Islands, 11 Environmental Research Letters (2016).

 

Ammer M. and Mayrhofer M., People Moving in the Context of Environmental Change: The Cautious Approach of the European Union, European Journal of Migration and Law 389-429 (2014).

 

Barnett J. and Webber W., Migration as Adaptation: Opportunities and Limits, in McAdam J. (ed.), Climate Change and Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2012).

Bates D., Environmental Refugees? Classifying Human Migrations Caused by Environmental Change, 23 Population and Environment 465-477 (2002).

Becker M. and Bhugra D., Migration, Cultural Bereavement and Cultural Identity, World Psychiatry 18-24 (2005).

Benhabib S., The Rights of Others: Aliens, Residents, and Citizens (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 251 p.

Bertin R., Climate Change and Flowering Phenology in Worcester County, Massachusetts, 176 International Journal of Plant Sciences 107-119 (2015).

Betts A., Forced Migration and Global Politics (Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 224 p.

Betsill M. and Bulkeley H., Cities and the Multilevel Governance of Global Climate Change, 12 Global Governance 141-159 (2016).

 

Bhugra D., Migration, Distress and Cultural Identity, 69 British Medical Bulletin 1-13 (2004).

 

Biermann F. and Boas I., Preparing for a Warmer World: Towards a Global Governance System to Protect Climate Refugees, 10 Global Environmental Politics 60-88 (2010).

 

Blunnie B., Climate Change and Forced Displacement: Conceptual and Legal Issues, 4 King's Inns Student Law Review 87-103 (2014).

 

Bogojevic S., EU Climate Change Litigation, the Role of the European Courts, and the Importance of Legal Culture, 35 Law & Policy 184-207 (2013).

Boyle A. and Chinkin C., The Making of International Law 213 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 288 p.

Böhringer C., The Kyoto Protocol: A Review and Perspectives, ZEW Discussion Papers 451-466 (2003).

 

Böhringer C. and Vogt C., Dismantling of a Breakthrough: the Kyoto Protocol - Just Symbolic Policy!, ZEW Discussion Papers (2002), 15 p.

Bradley M. and Cohen R., Disasters, Displacement and Protection: Challenges, Shortcomings and Ways Forward, in Faist T. and Schade J. (eds), Disentangling Migration and Climate Change: Towards an Analysis of Methodologies 207-228 (Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London: Springer-Science, 2013).

Bruch C., A Toolbox for Environmentally Displaced Persons, The Environmental Forum (November/December 2016).

Butti L., The Tortious Road to Liability: A Critical Survey on Climate Change Litigation in Europe and North America, Sustainable Development Law and Policy 32-84 (2011).

Carens J., Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders, Review of Politics 251-273 (1987).

Chaudry S., Development-induced Displacement and Forced Evictions, in Kälin W., Koser K. et al. (eds), Incorporating the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement into Domestic Law: Issues and Challenges 591-645 (Washington DC: Brookings Press, 2010).

Chimni B., International Refugee Law – A Reader (New Dehli: Sage Publications, 2000), 644 p.

 

Clark P., Shakun J. et al., Consequences of Twenty-First-Century Policy for Multi-millennial Climate and Sea-level Change, Nature Climate Change (8 February 2016), available at www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v6/n4/full/nclimate2923.html (accessed 2 April 2017).

 

Cohen R., Lessons Learned from the Development of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, Working Paper Georgetown University (2013), 21 p.

 

Cudiamat N., Displacement Disparity: Filling The Gap Of Protection For The Environmentally Displaced Person, 46 Valparaiso University Law Review 891-938 (2012).

 

De Feyter K., Localising Human Rights, IOB Discussion Paper 2006/05 (2006), 27 p.

 

de Guchtenaeire P., Pécoud A. and Piguet E., Migration and Climate Change: an Overview, 30(3) Refugee Survey Quarterly 21-22 (2011), 23 p.

El-Hinnawi E., Environmental Refugees (Nairobi: UNEP, 1985).

 

Faist T., McLeman R. and Schade J., Environmental Migration and Social Inequality (Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London: Springer, 2016), 237 p.

 

Farquhar H., Towards A New Zealand Response To Climate Change Displacement In The Pacific, 46 Victoria University Wellington Law Review 29-56 (2015).

Faure M. and Nollkaemper A., International Liability As An Instrument To Prevent and Compensate For Climate Change, 43 Stanford Journal of International Law 123-179 (2007).

Fisher E., Frame D. et al., Poorest Countries Experience Earlier Anthropogenic Emergence of Daily Temperature Extremes, 11 Environmental Research Letters (2016).

 

Franck T., Legitimacy in the International System, 82 American Journal for International Law 705-759 (1988).

Gemenne F. and Brücker P., From the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement to the Nansen Initiative: What the Governance of Environmental Migration Can Learn from the Governance of Internal Displacement, 27 International Journal of Refugee Law 245-263 (2015).

 

Gemenne F. and Rosenow-Williams K., Organizational Perspectives on Environmental Migration (Abingdon: Routledge, 2016), 242 p.

 

Glazebrook S., Human Rights and the Environment, 40 Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 1-62 (2009).

Global Governance Project, Global Environmental Governance Reconsidered (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012), 318 p.

Gogarty B., Climate-change and Displacement: Current Legal Solutions to Future Global Problems, 21 Journal of Law, Information and Science 167-188 (2011).

 

Gupta J., Legal Steps Outside the Climate Convention: Litigation as a Tool to Address Climate Change, 16 (1) Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 76-86 (2007).

Guzman A., A Compliance-based Theory of International Law, University of California at Berkeley (2017), 76 p.

Heister J., Klepper G. and Stähler F., Strategies of Global Environmental Policy - the UNCED Conference from an Economic Perspective, Zeitschrift für angewandte Umbweltforschung 1-26 (1992).

Hoff M., Effects of Global Warming on Human Cultural Diversity, 1 Climate Change, Human Systems and Policy 1-8 (2009).

Kan P., Towards A Critical Poiesis: Climate Justice And Displacement, 33 Virginia Environmental Law 1-50 (2015).

 

Kälin W., Supervising the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Article 35 and Beyond, in Feller E., Türk V. and Nicholson F. (eds), Refugee Protection in International Law 613-666 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2003).

 

Kälin W. and Schrepfer N., Protecting People Crossing Borders in the Context of Climate Change: Normative Gaps and Possible Approaches, UNHCR Research Studies (2012), 80 p.

 

Kemfert C., Climate Coalitions and International Trade: Assessment of Cooperation Incentives by Issue Linkage, Energy Policy 455-465 (2004).

Kibreab G., Environmental Causes and Impact of Refugee Movements: A Critique of the Current Debate, 21(1) Disasters 20-38 (1997).

Knight S., Asylum Seekers Find Little Refuge in Japan, Japan Today (26 July 2009), available at http://www.japantoday.com/category/lifestyle/view/asylum-seekers-find-l… (accessed 5 April 2017).

Kolmansskog V. and Trebbi L., Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Displacement: a Multi-track Approach to Filling the Protection Gaps, 92 International Review of the Red Cross 713-730 (2010).

Kosolapova E., Interstate Liability for Climate Change-related Damage, University of Amsterdam (2013), 264 p.

Kyed H., Introduction To The Special Issue: Legal Pluralism And International Development Interventions, 63 Journal of Legal Pluralism (2011), 23 p.

Marshall N., Forced Environmental Migration: Ethical Considerations for Emerging Migration Policy, Ethics, Policy & Environment 1-18 (2016).

Marshall N., Toward Special Mobility Rights for Climate Migrants, 37 Environmental Ethics 259-276 (2015).

Mayer B., Environmental Migration: Prospects for a Regional Governance in the Asia-Pacific Region, Asia Pacific Journal Of Environmental Law 77-103 (2013).

Mayer B., The International Legal Challenges of Climate-Induced Migration: Proposal for an International Legal Framework, 22(3) Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy 357-416 (2001).

McAdam J., Climate Change, Forced Migration and International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 322 p.

McAdam J., Swimming against the Tide: Why a Climate Change Displacement Treaty is not the Answer, 23 International Journal of Refugee Law 2-27 (2011).

 

McAdam J., The Normative Framework of Climate-change related Displacement (Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 2012), 6 p.

McAdam J., The Refugee Convention as a Rights Blueprint for Persons in Need of International Protection, UNHCR Research Paper no. 125 (2006), 16 p.

 

McAnaney S., Sinking Islands? Formulating A Realistic Solution To Climate Change Displacement, 87 New York University Law Review 1172-1209 (2012).

McCue G., Environmental Refugees: Applying International Environmental Law to Involuntary Migration, Georgetown International Environmental Law 151-217 (1993).

 

Merry S., Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 269 p.

 

 

Merry S., Measuring the World: Indicators, Human Rights, and Global Governance, 52 Current Anthropology 83-95 (2011).

 

Moore S., Law and Social Change: The Semi-Autonomous Social Field as an Appropriate Subject of Study, 7(4) Law & Society Review 719-746 (1973).

 

Nawrotzki R., Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility, Ethics, Policy & Environment 69-78 (2014).

Newland K., The Governance of International Migration: Mechanisms, Processes and Institutions, Global Governance 331-343 (2010).

 

Nielsen C. and Whiteman J., Lessons from Supervisory Mechanisms in International and Regional Law, 26 Journal of Refugee Studies 360-391 (2013).

 

Nishimura L., ‘Climate Change Migrants’: Impediments to a Protection Framework and the Need to Incorporate Migration into Climate Change Adaptation Strategies, 27 International Journal of Refugee Law 107-134 (2015).

Olsson L., Environmental Migrants in International Law, Örebro Universitet (2015), 38 p.

 

Onuma Y., A Transcivilizational Perspective on International Law (Leiden/Boston: Nijhoff, 2010), 492 p.

 

Page B. and Shapiro R., Effects of Public Opinion on Policy, 77 American Political Science Review 175-190 (1983).

Preston B., The Influence of Climate Change Litigation on Governments and the Private Sector, Climate Law (2011), 485-511.

Prieur M., Draft Convention on the International Status of EDP’s, 42/43 Fordham Urban Law Journal (2007), 10 p.

 

Rajagopal B., International Law and Social Resistance: Challenging of Theorising Resistance, 41 Colombia Journal of Transnational Law 397-433 (2003).

 

Reeves H. and Jousel J., Climate Refugees (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010), 350 p.

 

Schade J., Climate Change and Planned Relocation: Risks and a Proposal for Safeguards, in Faist T. and Schade J. (eds), Disentangling Migration and Climate Change: Towards an Analysis of Methodologies 183-206 (Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London: Springer-Science, 2013).

 

Scholtz W., Custodial Sovereignty: Reconciling Sovereignty And Global Environmental Challenges Amongst The Vestiges Of Colonialism, Netherlands International Law Review 323-341 (2008).

 

Simonelli A., Governing Climate Induced Migration and Displacement: IGO Expansion and Global Policy Implications, International Political Economy Series (2016), 192 p.

 

Subramanian N. and Urpelainen J.,  Addressing Cross-border Environmental Displacement: When Can International Treaties Help?, International Environmental Agreements 25-46 (2014).

Tay S., The Environment and Southeast Asia: Regionalism, States and Community, in Savage V. and Tan-Mullins M. (eds), The Naga Challenged: Southeast Asia in the Winds of Change 183-206 (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish, 2005).

Thornton F., Climate Change, Displacement and International Law: Between Crisis and Ambiguity, 30 Australian Year Book of International Law 147-160 (2012).

Todaro M. and Smith S., Economic Development (London: Pearson Educated Limited, 2011), 832 p.

Toscano J., Climate Change Displacement and Forced Migration: an International Crisis, 6 Arizona Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 457-490 (2015-2016).

 

Türk V., UNHCR’s Supervisory Responsibility, 14 Revue Québécoise de Droit International 135-158 (2001).

 

Vandenhole W., Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations: Taking Stock, Looking Forward, European Journal of Human Rights 804-835 (2013)

 

Wagner U., The Design of Stable International Environmental Agreements: Economic Theory and Political Economy, Journal of Economic Surveys 377-411 (2001).

 

Warner K., Climate Change Induced Displacement: Adaptation Policy in the Context of the UNFCCC Climate Negotiations, UNHCR Research Studies (2011), 19 p.

 

Williams A., Environmental Migration as a Humanitarian Challenge, in Heintze H. and Thielbörger P. (eds), From Cold War to Cyber War 87-104 (Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London: Springer, 2016).

 

Williams A., Turning the Tide: Recognizing Climate-change

Annex 1: Bibliography

1. Legislation, regulation and principles

International

 

UN, Sustainable Development Agenda 2030 (A/Res/70/1) (2015).

 

UNFCCC, Adoption of the Paris Agreement (FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1) (2015).

 

OHCHR, Climate Change Mapping Report (A/HRC/25/53) (2013).

 

UNFCCC, Cancun Agreements: Outcome of the Work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the Convention (UN Dec. 1/CP.16) (2011).

 

Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, entry into force on 3 May 2008, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, 3 December 2006.

 

UN Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Pinheiro Principles on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons (E/CN.4/Sub.2/2005/17) (2005).

 

UNFCCC, entry into force on 21 March 1994, 1771 U.N.T.S. 107, 9 May 1992.

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, entry into force on 23 March 1976, 999 U.N.T.S. 171, 16 December 1966.

Geneva Convention on the Protection of Refugees, entry into force on 22 April 1954, 189 U.N.T.S. 150, 28 July 1951.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNGA Res. 217 A (III)) (10 December 1948).

 

HRC Resolutions

HRC, Resolution 32/33/2016 (A/HRC/RES/32/L.2/Rev.1) (18 July 2017).

 

HRC, Resolution 29/2015 (A/HRC/RES/29/L.3) (22 July 2015).

 

HRC, Resolution 28/11/2015(A/HRC/RES/28/11) (6 April 2015).

 

HRC, Resolution 10/4/2009 (A/HRC/RES/10/4) (25 March 2009).

 

HRC, Resolution 7/23/2008(A/HRC/RES/7/23) (28 March 2008).

 

Regional

DS, the Peninsula Principles on Climate Displacement within States (2015), available at http://displacementsolutions.org/peninsula-principles/ (accessed 2 April 2017).

 

EU, Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts on Human, Animal and Plant Health (SWD/2013/0136) (2013).

 

African Union, Convention For The Protection And Assistance Of Internally Displaced Persons In Africa, entry into force on 6 December 2012, 22 October 2008.

 

COE, Recommendation of the Committee of Ministers to Member States on the Evaluation, Auditing and Monitoring of Participation and Participation Policies at Local and Regional Level (CM/Rec(2009)2) (2009).

 

EU, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU, legally binding on 1 December 2009, Official Journal of the European Union C326/391, 26 October 2012.

 

Protocol to the Pact on Peace, Security, Democracy and Development in the Great Lakes Region on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons, entry into force on 21 June 2008, 15 December 2006.

Protocol on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons in the Great Lakes Region, entry into force May 2008, 30 November 2006.

EU, Council Directive 2001/55/EC of 20 July 2001 on Minimum Standards for Giving Temporary Protection in the Event of a Mass Influx of Displaced Persons and on Measures Promoting a Balance of Efforts Between Member States in Receiving such Persons and Bearing the Consequences Thereof (OJ L 180/96-116) (2001).

 

EU, Treaty on European Union, entry into force on 1 November 1993, Official Journal of the European Communities C 326/13, 26 October 2012.

 

African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, entry into force on 21 October 1986, CAB/LEG/67/3 rev. 5, 21 I.L.M. 58, 27 June 1981.

 

Cartagena Declaration on Refugees (OAS Doc. OEA/Ser.L/V/II.66/doc.10) (1984).

OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 1001 U.N.T.S 45, 10 September 1969.

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, entry into force on 3 September 1953, ETS 5, 4 November 1950.

 

American Declaration Of The Rights And Duties Of Man (OEA/Ser.L.V/II.82 doc.6 rev.1) (1948).

 

Domestic

New Zealand, S. 207 (1) (a) Immigration Act New Zealand.

US, INA: ACT 244 - TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS, Sec. 244. 1/ [8 U.S.C. 1254].

 

2. Studies and policy documents

International

Summary of Recommended Actions on Human Rights and Climate Change from OHCHR Expert Meeting of 6-7 October 2016, Geneva, Switzerland, retrieved at http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/HRAndClimateChange/Pages/ClimateChange.a… (accessed 2 April 2017).

 

OHCHR, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons (A/HRC/32/35) (2016).

URG, The Policy Report On Human Rights, Climate Change And Cross-Border Displacement: The Role Of The International Human Rights Community In Contributing To Effective And Just Solutions (2015), 28 p., available at http://www.universal-rights.org/urg-policy-reports/human-rights-climate… (accessed 1 April 2017).

UPR, Info Annual Report: Beyond Promises: the impact of the UPR on the Ground (Geneva: UPR Info, 2014), 81 p.

IPCC, Fifth Assessment Report (AR5/2013) (2013).

OHCHR, Report of the Independent Expert on the issue of Human Rights Obligations Relating to the Enjoyment of a Safe, Clean, Healthy and Sustainable Development (A/HRC/25/53) (2013).

 

OHCHR, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants - Regional Study: Management of the External Borders of the European Union and its Impact on the Human Rights of Migrants (A/HRC/23/46) (2013).

 

UNDP, Climate Change Adaptation and Migration in the Mekong Delta, Can Tho University (2012).

 

OHCHR, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons - Protection of and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons (A/66/285) (2011).

 

World Bank Study, Human Rights and Climate Change: a Review of the International Legal Dimensions (Washington DC: World Bank, 2011), 145 p.

 

GFMD, Background Paper: Assessing the Relevance and Impact of Climate Change on Migration and Development (Mexico, 2010), available at https://gfmd.org/ (accessed 6 April 2017).

 

GFMD, Note on Climate Change and Migration (Mexico, 2010), available at https://gfmd.org/ (accessed 6 April 2017).

 

UNGA, Report of the Secretary General, Climate Change and its Possible Security Implications (A/64/350) (2009).

 

HRC, Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Relationship between Climate Change and Human Rights (A/HRC/10/61) (2009).

UNDP, Human Development Report on Human Mobility (2009), 217 p., available at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/reports/269/hdr_2009_en_complet… (accessed 6 April 2017).

IOM, Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence (2009), 441 p.

UNHCR, Working Paper by A. Guterres, Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Human Displacement (2008), retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/pdfid/492bb6b92.pdf (accessed 2 April 2017).

 

IASC, Climate Change, Migration and Displacement: Who will be Affected? (2008), available at http://www.unhcr.org/protection/environment/4a1e4fb42/climate-change-mi… (accessed 6 April 2017).

 

UNDP, Human Development Report, Climate Change And Forced Migration: Observations, Projections And Implications (2007), 34 p.

IPCC, Fourth Assessment Report (AR4/2007) (2007).

IOM, Discussion Note: Migration and the Environment (MC/INF/288) (2007), 8 p.

 

Human Rights Committee, Aalbersberg v. The Netherlands (CCPR/C/87/D/1440/2005) (2006).

 

UNGA, 2005 World Summit Outcome (A/60/L.1) (2005).

 

UNFCCC, Organisational Matters: Adoption of Rules of Procedure (FCCC/CP/1996/2) (1996).

UNHCR, The Principle of Non-Refoulement as a Norm of Customary International Law: Response to the Questions Posed to UNHCR by the Federal Constitutional Court of the Federal Republic of Germany in Cases 2 BvR 1938/93, 2 BvR 1953/93, 2 BvR 1954/93 (1994).

 

Regional and domestic

Nansen Initiative, Agenda for the Protection of Cross-border Displaced Persons in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change (2015), 56 p., available at https://www.nanseninitiative.org/ (accessed 2 April 2017).

ADB, Addressing Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific: Final Report, ADB Publications (2012), 82 p.

EU, European Parliament Directorate-General for Internal Policies, Climate Refugees: Legal and Policy Responses to Environmentally Induced Migration Study (2011), 86 p.

 

Foresight Report, Migration and Global Environmental Change (London: UK Government Office for Science, 2011), 237 p.

Oxfam, Resettlement by Metadata in the Zambezi Valley: An Independent Study on the Post-flood Resettlement Approach in Mozambique (2008), 88 p., retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/8062422/Reassentamento_pela_Metade_no_Vale_do_Z… (accessed 3 April 2017).

APF, Background Paper on Environment (2007), 186 p., available at http://www.asiapacificforum.net/resources/apf-12-background-paper-acj-r… (accessed 3 April 2017).

 

The Stern Review, The Economics Of Climate Change (2006), available at http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/Part IIIntroduction-.group.pdf (accessed 6 April 2017).

 

3. Preparatory works

International

Geneva Convention on the Protection of Refugees, entry into force on 22 April 1954, 189 U.N.T.S 150, 28 July 1951 - the travaux preparatoires analysed with a commentary by Dr. Paul Weis.

Regional and domestic

Belgium, Proposal of Resolution to Recognize the Status of Environmental Refugees in the International Conventions (introduced by Mr. Philippe Mahoux) (Doc. no. 3-1556/1, Belgian Senate 2005-2006) (2006).

 

4. Statements

 

Statement by K. Gilmore (Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights), at the opening of the OHCHR Expert Meeting on Climate Change and Human Rights (6 October 2016).

Statement by L. Chazoumes (HRC Advisory Committee Member), at the Geneva Pledge on Human Rights and Climate Change Event (13 September 2016).

 

Opening statement by B. Schachter (OHCHR) at the Climate Forced Displacement: Rights and Obligations COP 21 (5 December 2015).

 

Statement by J. Egeland (Secretary General of the Norwegian Refugee Council), speaking at the sidelines of the COP21 climate negotiations (2015).

 

Statement by A. Tong (President of the Republic of Kiribati), at the General Debate of the 63rd Session of the United Nations General Assembly (25 September 2008).

Statement by K. Kang (former Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights), at the Conference on Climate Change, Migration and Human Rights: Addressing Vulnerabilities and Harnessing Opportunities (19 February 2008).

 

5. Case law

1. International or regional courts

ECtHR 20 December 2011, Yoh-Ekale Mwanje v. Belgium, No. 10486/10.

ECtHR 21 January 2011, M.S.S. v. Belgium and Greece, No. 30696/09.

 

ECtHR 27 May 2008, N. v. United Kingdom, No. 26565/05.

 

ECtHR 20 March 2008, Budayeva and others v. Russia, No. 15339/0220.

 

ECtHR 10 November 2004, Taskin v. Turkey, No. 46117/99.

 

ECtHR 22 June 2004, F. v. United Kingdom, No. 17341/0.

ACHR 27 October 2001, Ogoniland Case (Social and Economic Rights Action Center v. Nigeria), 155/96.

ECtHR 2 May 1997, D. v. United Kingdom, No. 146/1996/767/964.

 

ICJ 6 April 1955, Liechtenstein v. Guatemala (‘Nottebohm case’), available at http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/18/2674.pdf (accessed 3 April 2017).

2. Domestic courts

New Zealand Supreme Court 20 July 2015, Teitiota v. Chief Executive of the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, [2015] NZSC 107.

 

The Hague Court 24 June 2015, Stichting Urgenda v. the Netherlands, C/09/456689.

 

NZIPT 4 June 2014, AD (Tuvalu), [2014] NZIPT 501370-371.

NZCA 8 May 2014, Teitiota v. Chief Executive of the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, [2014] NZCA 173.

NZHC 26 November 2013, Teitiota .v Chief Executive of the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, [2013] NZHC 3125.

NZIPT 25 June 2013, AF (Kiribati), [2013] NZIPT 800413.

US Supreme Court 20 June 2011, American Electrical Power Co. v. Connecticut, 564 U.S. 410.

 

Refugee Review Tribunal of Australia 10 December 2009, No 0907346, [2009] RRTA 1168.

US District Court for the Northern District of California 30 September 2009, Kivalina v. ExxonMobil Corp. et al., 696 F 3d 849.

US Supreme Court 2 April 2007, Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency, 549 U.S. 497.

 

Petition To the Inter-American Commission On Human Rights Violations Resulting From Global Warming Caused By The United States (7 December 2005), available at http://www.inuitcircumpolar.com (accessed 3 April 2017).

Federal High Court of Nigeria 14 November 2005, Nigeria Gbemre v. Shell Petroleum, FHC/B/CS/53/05.

 

Supreme Court of Colombia 22 January 2004, Decision T-025, available at https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Colombia_T-025_200… (accessed 3 April 2017).

 

NZRSAA 19 October 2000, No 72314 [2000]; No 72315 [2000] and No 72316 [2000].

NZRSAA 31 August 2000, No 72313 [2000].

NZRSAA 17 August 2000, Refugee Appeal No 72189/2000 [2000] and Nos 72179–72181 [2000].

NZRSAA 10 August 2000, Refugee Appeal No 72185 [2000]; No 72186 [2000] and Nos 72189–72195 [2000]

Supreme Court of the Philippines 30 July 1993, Oposa et. al. v. Factoran, No. 101083.

Supreme Court of Canada 30 June 1993, Canada (Attorney General) v. Ward, 1993 2 S.C.R. 689.

 

6. Doctrine

Abbott K. and Snidal D., Hard and Soft Law in International Governance, International Organization 54 421-456 (2000).

Achten K., Environmentally Displaced Persons A Game Theoretic View, Linnaeus University (2013), 59 p.

Ackerman F. and Stanton E., The Cost of Climate Change: What We’ll Pay if Global Warming Continues Unchecked, National Resources Defense Council (2008), 33 p.

 

Adolph A., Burchsted D. et al., A Longer Vernal Window: The Role of Winter Coldness and Snowpack in Driving Spring Transitions and Lags, 23 Global Change Biology 1610-1625 (2017).

 

Aguilar G., The Local Relevance of Human Rights: a Methodological Approach, IOB Discussion Paper 2008/4 (2008), 35 p.

 

Albert S., Leon J. et al., Interactions between Sea-level Rise and Wave Exposure on Reef Island Dynamics in the Solomon Islands, 11 Environmental Research Letters (2016).

 

Ammer M. and Mayrhofer M., People Moving in the Context of Environmental Change: The Cautious Approach of the European Union, European Journal of Migration and Law 389-429 (2014).

 

Barnett J. and Webber W., Migration as Adaptation: Opportunities and Limits, in McAdam J. (ed.), Climate Change and Displacement: Multidisciplinary Perspectives (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2012).

Bates D., Environmental Refugees? Classifying Human Migrations Caused by Environmental Change, 23 Population and Environment 465-477 (2002).

Becker M. and Bhugra D., Migration, Cultural Bereavement and Cultural Identity, World Psychiatry 18-24 (2005).

Benhabib S., The Rights of Others: Aliens, Residents, and Citizens (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 251 p.

Bertin R., Climate Change and Flowering Phenology in Worcester County, Massachusetts, 176 International Journal of Plant Sciences 107-119 (2015).

Betts A., Forced Migration and Global Politics (Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 224 p.

Betsill M. and Bulkeley H., Cities and the Multilevel Governance of Global Climate Change, 12 Global Governance 141-159 (2016).

 

Bhugra D., Migration, Distress and Cultural Identity, 69 British Medical Bulletin 1-13 (2004).

 

Biermann F. and Boas I., Preparing for a Warmer World: Towards a Global Governance System to Protect Climate Refugees, 10 Global Environmental Politics 60-88 (2010).

 

Blunnie B., Climate Change and Forced Displacement: Conceptual and Legal Issues, 4 King's Inns Student Law Review 87-103 (2014).

 

Bogojevic S., EU Climate Change Litigation, the Role of the European Courts, and the Importance of Legal Culture, 35 Law & Policy 184-207 (2013).

Boyle A. and Chinkin C., The Making of International Law 213 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 288 p.

Böhringer C., The Kyoto Protocol: A Review and Perspectives, ZEW Discussion Papers 451-466 (2003).

 

Böhringer C. and Vogt C., Dismantling of a Breakthrough: the Kyoto Protocol - Just Symbolic Policy!, ZEW Discussion Papers (2002), 15 p.

Bradley M. and Cohen R., Disasters, Displacement and Protection: Challenges, Shortcomings and Ways Forward, in Faist T. and Schade J. (eds), Disentangling Migration and Climate Change: Towards an Analysis of Methodologies 207-228 (Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London: Springer-Science, 2013).

Bruch C., A Toolbox for Environmentally Displaced Persons, The Environmental Forum (November/December 2016).

Butti L., The Tortious Road to Liability: A Critical Survey on Climate Change Litigation in Europe and North America, Sustainable Development Law and Policy 32-84 (2011).

Carens J., Aliens and Citizens: The Case for Open Borders, Review of Politics 251-273 (1987).

Chaudry S., Development-induced Displacement and Forced Evictions, in Kälin W., Koser K. et al. (eds), Incorporating the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement into Domestic Law: Issues and Challenges 591-645 (Washington DC: Brookings Press, 2010).

Chimni B., International Refugee Law – A Reader (New Dehli: Sage Publications, 2000), 644 p.

 

Clark P., Shakun J. et al., Consequences of Twenty-First-Century Policy for Multi-millennial Climate and Sea-level Change, Nature Climate Change (8 February 2016), available at www.nature.com/nclimate/journal/v6/n4/full/nclimate2923.html (accessed 2 April 2017).

 

Cohen R., Lessons Learned from the Development of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, Working Paper Georgetown University (2013), 21 p.

 

Cudiamat N., Displacement Disparity: Filling The Gap Of Protection For The Environmentally Displaced Person, 46 Valparaiso University Law Review 891-938 (2012).

 

De Feyter K., Localising Human Rights, IOB Discussion Paper 2006/05 (2006), 27 p.

 

de Guchtenaeire P., Pécoud A. and Piguet E., Migration and Climate Change: an Overview, 30(3) Refugee Survey Quarterly 21-22 (2011), 23 p.

El-Hinnawi E., Environmental Refugees (Nairobi: UNEP, 1985).

 

Faist T., McLeman R. and Schade J., Environmental Migration and Social Inequality (Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London: Springer, 2016), 237 p.

 

Farquhar H., Towards A New Zealand Response To Climate Change Displacement In The Pacific, 46 Victoria University Wellington Law Review 29-56 (2015).

Faure M. and Nollkaemper A., International Liability As An Instrument To Prevent and Compensate For Climate Change, 43 Stanford Journal of International Law 123-179 (2007).

Fisher E., Frame D. et al., Poorest Countries Experience Earlier Anthropogenic Emergence of Daily Temperature Extremes, 11 Environmental Research Letters (2016).

 

Franck T., Legitimacy in the International System, 82 American Journal for International Law 705-759 (1988).

Gemenne F. and Brücker P., From the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement to the Nansen Initiative: What the Governance of Environmental Migration Can Learn from the Governance of Internal Displacement, 27 International Journal of Refugee Law 245-263 (2015).

 

Gemenne F. and Rosenow-Williams K., Organizational Perspectives on Environmental Migration (Abingdon: Routledge, 2016), 242 p.

 

Glazebrook S., Human Rights and the Environment, 40 Victoria University of Wellington Law Review 1-62 (2009).

Global Governance Project, Global Environmental Governance Reconsidered (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2012), 318 p.

Gogarty B., Climate-change and Displacement: Current Legal Solutions to Future Global Problems, 21 Journal of Law, Information and Science 167-188 (2011).

 

Gupta J., Legal Steps Outside the Climate Convention: Litigation as a Tool to Address Climate Change, 16 (1) Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 76-86 (2007).

Guzman A., A Compliance-based Theory of International Law, University of California at Berkeley (2017), 76 p.

Heister J., Klepper G. and Stähler F., Strategies of Global Environmental Policy - the UNCED Conference from an Economic Perspective, Zeitschrift für angewandte Umbweltforschung 1-26 (1992).

Hoff M., Effects of Global Warming on Human Cultural Diversity, 1 Climate Change, Human Systems and Policy 1-8 (2009).

Kan P., Towards A Critical Poiesis: Climate Justice And Displacement, 33 Virginia Environmental Law 1-50 (2015).

 

Kälin W., Supervising the 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees: Article 35 and Beyond, in Feller E., Türk V. and Nicholson F. (eds), Refugee Protection in International Law 613-666 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2003).

 

Kälin W. and Schrepfer N., Protecting People Crossing Borders in the Context of Climate Change: Normative Gaps and Possible Approaches, UNHCR Research Studies (2012), 80 p.

 

Kemfert C., Climate Coalitions and International Trade: Assessment of Cooperation Incentives by Issue Linkage, Energy Policy 455-465 (2004).

Kibreab G., Environmental Causes and Impact of Refugee Movements: A Critique of the Current Debate, 21(1) Disasters 20-38 (1997).

Knight S., Asylum Seekers Find Little Refuge in Japan, Japan Today (26 July 2009), available at http://www.japantoday.com/category/lifestyle/view/asylum-seekers-find-l… (accessed 5 April 2017).

Kolmansskog V. and Trebbi L., Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Displacement: a Multi-track Approach to Filling the Protection Gaps, 92 International Review of the Red Cross 713-730 (2010).

Kosolapova E., Interstate Liability for Climate Change-related Damage, University of Amsterdam (2013), 264 p.

Kyed H., Introduction To The Special Issue: Legal Pluralism And International Development Interventions, 63 Journal of Legal Pluralism (2011), 23 p.

Marshall N., Forced Environmental Migration: Ethical Considerations for Emerging Migration Policy, Ethics, Policy & Environment 1-18 (2016).

Marshall N., Toward Special Mobility Rights for Climate Migrants, 37 Environmental Ethics 259-276 (2015).

Mayer B., Environmental Migration: Prospects for a Regional Governance in the Asia-Pacific Region, Asia Pacific Journal Of Environmental Law 77-103 (2013).

Mayer B., The International Legal Challenges of Climate-Induced Migration: Proposal for an International Legal Framework, 22(3) Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law & Policy 357-416 (2001).

McAdam J., Climate Change, Forced Migration and International Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 322 p.

McAdam J., Swimming against the Tide: Why a Climate Change Displacement Treaty is not the Answer, 23 International Journal of Refugee Law 2-27 (2011).

 

McAdam J., The Normative Framework of Climate-change related Displacement (Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 2012), 6 p.

McAdam J., The Refugee Convention as a Rights Blueprint for Persons in Need of International Protection, UNHCR Research Paper no. 125 (2006), 16 p.

 

McAnaney S., Sinking Islands? Formulating A Realistic Solution To Climate Change Displacement, 87 New York University Law Review 1172-1209 (2012).

McCue G., Environmental Refugees: Applying International Environmental Law to Involuntary Migration, Georgetown International Environmental Law 151-217 (1993).

 

Merry S., Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006), 269 p.

 

 

Merry S., Measuring the World: Indicators, Human Rights, and Global Governance, 52 Current Anthropology 83-95 (2011).

 

Moore S., Law and Social Change: The Semi-Autonomous Social Field as an Appropriate Subject of Study, 7(4) Law & Society Review 719-746 (1973).

 

Nawrotzki R., Climate Migration and Moral Responsibility, Ethics, Policy & Environment 69-78 (2014).

Newland K., The Governance of International Migration: Mechanisms, Processes and Institutions, Global Governance 331-343 (2010).

 

Nielsen C. and Whiteman J., Lessons from Supervisory Mechanisms in International and Regional Law, 26 Journal of Refugee Studies 360-391 (2013).

 

Nishimura L., ‘Climate Change Migrants’: Impediments to a Protection Framework and the Need to Incorporate Migration into Climate Change Adaptation Strategies, 27 International Journal of Refugee Law 107-134 (2015).

Olsson L., Environmental Migrants in International Law, Örebro Universitet (2015), 38 p.

 

Onuma Y., A Transcivilizational Perspective on International Law (Leiden/Boston: Nijhoff, 2010), 492 p.

 

Page B. and Shapiro R., Effects of Public Opinion on Policy, 77 American Political Science Review 175-190 (1983).

Preston B., The Influence of Climate Change Litigation on Governments and the Private Sector, Climate Law (2011), 485-511.

Prieur M., Draft Convention on the International Status of EDP’s, 42/43 Fordham Urban Law Journal (2007), 10 p.

 

Rajagopal B., International Law and Social Resistance: Challenging of Theorising Resistance, 41 Colombia Journal of Transnational Law 397-433 (2003).

 

Reeves H. and Jousel J., Climate Refugees (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2010), 350 p.

 

Schade J., Climate Change and Planned Relocation: Risks and a Proposal for Safeguards, in Faist T. and Schade J. (eds), Disentangling Migration and Climate Change: Towards an Analysis of Methodologies 183-206 (Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London: Springer-Science, 2013).

 

Scholtz W., Custodial Sovereignty: Reconciling Sovereignty And Global Environmental Challenges Amongst The Vestiges Of Colonialism, Netherlands International Law Review 323-341 (2008).

 

Simonelli A., Governing Climate Induced Migration and Displacement: IGO Expansion and Global Policy Implications, International Political Economy Series (2016), 192 p.

 

Subramanian N. and Urpelainen J.,  Addressing Cross-border Environmental Displacement: When Can International Treaties Help?, International Environmental Agreements 25-46 (2014).

Tay S., The Environment and Southeast Asia: Regionalism, States and Community, in Savage V. and Tan-Mullins M. (eds), The Naga Challenged: Southeast Asia in the Winds of Change 183-206 (Singapore: Marshall Cavendish, 2005).

Thornton F., Climate Change, Displacement and International Law: Between Crisis and Ambiguity, 30 Australian Year Book of International Law 147-160 (2012).

Todaro M. and Smith S., Economic Development (London: Pearson Educated Limited, 2011), 832 p.

Toscano J., Climate Change Displacement and Forced Migration: an International Crisis, 6 Arizona Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 457-490 (2015-2016).

 

Türk V., UNHCR’s Supervisory Responsibility, 14 Revue Québécoise de Droit International 135-158 (2001).

 

Vandenhole W., Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations: Taking Stock, Looking Forward, European Journal of Human Rights 804-835 (2013)

 

Wagner U., The Design of Stable International Environmental Agreements: Economic Theory and Political Economy, Journal of Economic Surveys 377-411 (2001).

 

Warner K., Climate Change Induced Displacement: Adaptation Policy in the Context of the UNFCCC Climate Negotiations, UNHCR Research Studies (2011), 19 p.

 

Williams A., Environmental Migration as a Humanitarian Challenge, in Heintze H. and Thielbörger P. (eds), From Cold War to Cyber War 87-104 (Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London: Springer, 2016).

 

Williams A., Turning the Tide: Recognizing Climate-change Refugees in International Law, 30 Law Land and Policy 502-529 (2008).

Refugees in International Law, 30 Law Land and Policy 502-529 (2008).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Rechten
Publicatiejaar
2017
Promotor
Koen De Feyter
Kernwoorden