An interlinguistic study on the perception of language and the effect on altruistic behavior

Michelle Declercq
Een inter-linguïstische studie over de perceptie van taal en het effect op altruïstisch gedrag In het kader van fondsenwervingHet aantal maal een advertentiebericht wordt gelezen zit in een opwaartse trend naar aanleiding van een onafwendbare technologische progressie die de mensen van de wereld steeds maar meer verbonden maakt met elkaar. Dit leidt er dan ook toe dat het des te noodzakelijker wordt te onderzoeken hoe maximaal nut uit deze marketingberichten gehaald kan worden.

An interlinguistic study on the perception of language and the effect on altruistic behavior

Een inter-linguïstische studie over de perceptie van taal en het effect op altruïstisch gedrag In het kader van fondsenwerving

Het aantal maal een advertentiebericht wordt gelezen zit in een opwaartse trend naar aanleiding van een onafwendbare technologische progressie die de mensen van de wereld steeds maar meer verbonden maakt met elkaar. Dit leidt er dan ook toe dat het des te noodzakelijker wordt te onderzoeken hoe maximaal nut uit deze marketingberichten gehaald kan worden. Zo kan men nagaan in welke taal een campagne best geschreven wordt, maar daar stopt het echter niet bij aangezien recente studies hebben aangetoond dat de perceptie van tijd afhankelijk is van taal en hierdoor ook tot ander gedrag kan leiden. Om tijd te categoriseren bestaan er twee mogelijkheden, namelijk werkwoordtijd en -aspect.Deze studie maakt gebruikt van de eerstgenoemde, werkwoordtijd om te onderzoeken hoe de perceptie van taal en werkwoordtijd in het opstellen van fondsenwervingcampagnes altruïstisch gedrag beïnvloedt. De fondsenwerving markt is gekozen omdat literatuur in dit domein schaars maar broodnodig is. De studie baseert zich op een online kwantitatief onderzoek om de drie samenstellende hypothesen te staven. Deelnemers van dit onderzoek waren tweetalige Belgen (Nederlands- Engels), die doormiddel van volledige randomisatie met of een Nederlandstalige of een Engelstalige vragenlijst geprikkeld werden om na te gaan of een puur linguïstisch effect waarneembaar was.

De resultaten wijzen op een kloof tussen altruïstische intentie en gedrag voor deelnemers van de Engelse conditie. Hoewel deze een hogere waarschijnlijkheid aanduidden om geld te doneren, doneerden ze gemiddeld toch hetzelfde bedrag als deelnemers in de Nederlandstalige conditie. Dit stelt natuurlijk de vraag wat deze kloof veroorzaakt en hoe deze gedempt kan worden en waarom deze kloof niet in de Nederlandstalige conditie aanwezig was. Aanvullend duiden de resultaten er ook op dat mensen meer altruïstischer gedrag vertonen naarmate ze ouder worden, dit in lijn met bevindingen van eerdere studies.

Bibliografie

 Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Angerer, S., Glätzle-Rützler, D., Lergetporer, P., & Sutter, M. (2014). Donations, risk attitudes and time preferences: A study on altruism in primary school children. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization.

Andreoni, J. (1989). Giving with impure altruism: applications to charity and Ricardian equivalence. The Journal of Political Economy, 1447-1458.

Andreoni, J. (1990). Impure altruism and donations to public goods: a theory of warm-glow giving. The economic journal, 464-477.

Andreoni, J., Brown, E., & Rischall, I. (2003). Charitable Giving by Married Couples Who Decides and Why Does it Matter?. Journal of Human Resources, 38(1), 111-133.

Ashton, M. C., Paunonen, S. V., Helmes, E., & Jackson, D. N. (1998). Kin altruism, reciprocal altruism, and the Big Five personality factors. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19(4), 243-255.

Bachmann, D., Elfrink, J., & Vazzana, G. (1996). Tracking the progress of e-mail vs. snail-mail. Marketing Research, 8, 31-35.

Barone, M. J., Miyazaki, A. D., & Taylor, K. A. (2000). The influence of cause-related marketing on consumer choice: does one good turn deserve another?. Journal of the academy of marketing Science, 28(2), 248-262.

Bekkers, R., & Wiepking, P. (2006). To give or not to give, that is the question: How methodology is destiny in Dutch giving data. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 35(3), 533-540.

Bekkers, R. (2007, December). Measuring altruistic behavior in surveys: The all-or-nothing dictator game. In Survey Research Methods (Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 139-144). University of Groningen.

Benhabib, J., Bisin, A., & Schotter, A. (2004). Hyperbolic discounting: An experimental analysis. New York University Department of Economics Working Paper.

Boroditsky, L., Ham, W., & Ramscar, M. (2002, August). What is universal in event perception? Comparing English and Indonesian speakers. In Proceedings of the 24th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 136-141).

Breman, A. (2011). Give more tomorrow: Two field experiments on altruism and intertemporal choice. Journal of Public Economics, 95(11), 1349-1357.

Briley, D. A., Morris, M. W., & Simonson, I. (2005). Cultural chameleons: Biculturals, conformity motives, and decision making. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15(4), 351-362.

Brown, E. (2005). College, social capital, and charitable giving. Gifts of time and money in America’s communities, 185-204.

Camerer, C. (2003). Behavioral game theory: Experiments in strategic interaction. Princeton University Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1983). Central and peripheral routes to persuasion: Application to advertising. Advertising and consumer psychology, 3-23.

Carrera, P., Muñoz, D., Caballero, A., Fernández, I., Aguilar, P., & Albarracín, D. (2014). How verb tense affects the construal of action: The simple past tense leads people into an abstract mindset. Psicológica, 35(2), 209-223.

Carroll, A. B. (1999). Corporate social responsibility evolution of a definitional construct. Business & society, 38(3), 268-295.

Carroll, R., & Luna, D. (2011). The Other Meaning of Fluency. Journal of Advertising, 40(3), 73-84.

Chen, M Keith. (2013). The Effect of Language on Economic Behavior: Evidence from Savings Rates, Health Behaviors, and Retirement Assets. American Economic Review, 103(2), 690-731.

Chen, S. X., Benet‐Martínez, V., & Ng, J. C. (2014). Does language affect personality perception? A functional approach to testing the Whorfian hypothesis. Journal of personality, 82(2), 130-143.

Cheshire, J., & Moser, L. M. (1994). English as a cultural symbol: The case of advertisements in French‐speaking Switzerland. Journal of multilingual & multicultural development, 15(6), 451-469.

Chomsky, N. (1969). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Vol. 11). MIT press.

Couper, M. P. (2000). Review: Web surveys: A review of issues and approaches. Public opinion quarterly, 464-494.

Dahl, Ö. (Ed.). (2000). Tense and Aspect in the Languages of Europe. Walter de Gruyter.

Dahl, Ö. (2013). Stuck in the futureless zone

Das, E., Kerkhof, P., & Kuiper, J. (2008). Improving the effectiveness of fundraising messages: The impact of charity goal attainment, message framing, and evidence on persuasion. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 36(2), 161-175.

Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, C., Cheng, J., Kleinberg, J., & Lee, L. (2012, July). You had me at hello: How phrasing affects memorability. In Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Long Papers-Volume 1 (pp. 892-901). Association for Computational Linguistics.

Eckel, C. C., & Grossman, P. J. (1996). Altruism in anonymous dictator games. Games and economic behavior, 16(2), 181-191.

Efron, B., & Tibshirani, R. J. (1994). An introduction to the bootstrap. CRC press.

Engel, C. (2011). Dictator games: a meta study. Experimental Economics, 14(4), 583-610.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research.

Friedman, T. (2005). The world is flat: A brief history of the globalized world in the 21st century. London: Allen Lane, 393-395.

Frick, A., & Bächtiger, M. T. Reips. U.-D-.(1999). Financial incentives, personal information and dropout rate in online studies. Dimensions of Internet science, 209-219.

Grosjean, F. (2010). Bilingual: Life and reality. Harvard University Press.

Guy, B. S., & Patton, W. E. (1989). The marketing of altruistic causes: understanding why people help. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 6(1), 19-30.

Hamilton, W. D. (1964). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. Part I & II. Journal of theoretical biology, 7(1), 17-52.

Harbaugh, W. T. (1998). What do donations buy?: A model of philanthropy based on prestige and warm glow. Journal of Public Economics, 67(2), 269-284.

Hart, W., & Albarracín, D. (2009). What I Was Doing Versus What I Did Verb Aspect Influences Memory and Future Actions. Psychological Science, 20(2), 238-244.

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford Press.

Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling.

Hibbert, S., & Horne, S. (1996). Giving to charity: questioning the donor decision process. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 13(2), 4-13.

Hjarvard, S. (2004). The globalization of language. Nordicom Review, 25, 75-97.

Hochman, H. M., & Rodgers, J. D. (1969). Pareto optimal redistribution. The American Economic Review, 542-557.

Jacquemet, M. (2005). Transidiomatic practices: Language and power in the age of globalization. Language & Communication, 25(3), 257-277.

Kerr, B., Godfrey-Smith, P., & Feldman, M. W. (2004). What is altruism?. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19(3), 135-140.

Kitchen, J. P., Kerr, G., E. Schultz, D., McColl, R., & Pals, H. (2014). The elaboration likelihood model: review, critique and research agenda. European Journal of Marketing, 48(11/12), 2033-2050.

Khalil, E. L. (2004). What is altruism?. Journal of economic psychology, 25(1), 97-123.

Klein, W. (2013). Time in language. Routledge.

Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior?. Environmental education research, 8(3), 239-260.

Kolm, S. C. (1969). The optimal production of social justice. Public economics, 145-200.

Korchmaros, J. D., & Kenny, D. A. (2001). Emotional closeness as a mediator of the effect of genetic relatedness on altruism. Psychological science, 12(3), 262-265.

Kotler, P. (1979). Strategies for introducing marketing into nonprofit organizations. The Journal of Marketing, 37-44.

Kottasz, R. (2004). How should charitable organisations motivate young professionals to give philanthropically?. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 9(1), 9-27.

Kotler, P., & Levy, S. J. (1969). Broadening the concept of marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 10-15.

Kuppens, A. H. (2009). English in advertising: Generic intertextuality in a globalizing media environment. Oxford University Press Applied Linguistics, 31(1),115-135

Lee, Y. K., & Chang, C. T. (2007). Who gives what to charity? Characteristics affecting donation behavior. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 35(9), 1173-1180.

Liberman, N., Sagristano, M. D., & Trope, Y. (2002). The effect of temporal distance on level of mental construal. Journal of experimental social psychology, 38(6), 523-534.

Lipski, J. M. (2005). Code-switching or borrowing? No sé so no puedo decir, you know. In Selected proceedings of the second workshop on Spanish sociolinguistics (pp. 1-15).

Loewenstein, G., & Prelec, D. (1992). Anomalies in intertemporal choice: Evidence and an interpretation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 573-597.

Loewenstein, G., Read, D., & Baumeister, R. F. (Eds.). (2003). Time and Decision: Economic and Psychological Perspectives of Intertemporal Choice. Russell Sage Foundation.

Luna, D., & Peracchio, L. A. (2002). “Where there is a will…”: Motivation as a moderator of language processing by bilingual consumers. Psychology & Marketing, 19(7‐8), 573-593.

Luna, D., & Peracchio, L. A. (2005). Advertising to bilingual consumers: the impact of code‐switching on persuasion. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 760-765.

Luna, D., Peracchio, L. A., & de Juan, M. D. (2003). The impact of language and congruity on persuasion in multicultural e-marketing. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(1), 41-50.

Luna, D., Ringberg, T., & Peracchio, L. A. (2008). One individual, two identities: Frame switching among biculturals. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(2), 279-293.

MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological methods, 7(1), 83.

Madden, C. J., & Zwaan, R. A. (2003). How does verb aspect constrain event representations?. Memory & Cognition, 31(5), 663-672.

Midlarsky, E., & Hannah, M. E. (1989). The generous elderly: naturalistic studies of donations across the life span. Psychology and aging, 4(3), 346.

Mitra, T., & Gilbert, E. (2014, February). The language that gets people to give: Phrases that predict success on kickstarter. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work & social computing (pp. 49-61). ACM.

Noriega, J., & Blair, E. (2008). Advertising to bilinguals: Does the language of advertising influence the nature of thoughts?. Journal of Marketing, 72(5), 69-83.

Orne, M. T. (1962). On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American psychologist, 17(11), 776.

Pinker, S. (1994). The language instinct: How the mind creates languages. New York, HarperCollinsRickford.

Pourhoseingholi, M. A., Baghestani, A. R., & Vahedi, M. (2012). How to control confounding effects by statistical analysis. Gastroenterology and Hepatology from bed to bench, 5(2), 79.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior research methods, 40(3), 879-891.

Puntoni, S., De Langhe, B., & Van Osselaer, S. M. (2009). Bilingualism and the emotional intensity of advertising language. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(6), 1012-1025.

Rachlin, H., & Jones, B. A. (2008). Altruism among relatives and non-relatives. Behavioural processes, 79(2), 120-123.

Rogers, R. W. (1975). A protection motivation theory of fear appeals and attitude change1. The journal of psychology, 91(1), 93-114.

Rushton, J. P., Chrisjohn, R. D., & Fekken, G. C. (1981). The altruistic personality and the self-report altruism scale. Personality and individual differences, 2(4), 293-302.

Samuelson, P. A. (1937). A note on measurement of utility. The Review of Economic Studies, 4(2), 155-161.

Sapir, E. (1970). Culture, language and personality: selected essays. D. G. Mandelbaum (Ed.). University of California Press.

Semin, G. R., & Fiedler, K. E. (1992). Language, interaction and social cognition. Sage Publications, Inc.

Sheeran, P. (2002). Intention—behavior relations: A conceptual and empirical review. European review of social psychology, 12(1), 1-36.

Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological methodology, 13(1982), 290-312.

Steenburg, E. V. (2013). Nonprofit advertising and behavioral intention: The effects of persuasive messages on donations and volunteerism (Doctoral dissertation, University of North Texas).

Stel, M., Van Baaren, R. B., & Vonk, R. (2008). Effects of mimicking: Acting prosocially by being emotionally moved. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38(6), 965-976.

Stephan, E., Liberman, N., & Trope, Y. (2011). The effects of time perspective and level of construal on social distance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(2), 397-402.

Stern, B. B. (1988). How does an ad mean? Language in services advertising. Journal of Advertising, 17(2), 3-14.

Thieroff, R. (2000). On the areal distribution of tense-aspect categories in Europe. Empirical approaches to language typology, (6), 265-308.

Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly review of biology, 35-57.

Triandis, H. C. (1980). Values, attitudes, and interpersonal behavior. In H. Howe & page (Eds), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation (Vol. 27, pp. 195-259). Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press

Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2003). Temporal construal. Psychological review, 110(3), 403.

Van Vaerenbergh, Y., & Holmqvist, J. (2013). Speak my language if you want my money: Service language's influence on consumer tipping behavior. European Journal of Marketing, 47(8), 1276-1292.

Varadarajan, P. R., & Menon, A. (1988). Cause-related marketing: A coalignment of marketing strategy and corporate philanthropy. The Journal of Marketing, 58-74.

Walker, C. (2004). A charitable view of altruism: Commentary on ‘What is altruism?’by Elias Khalil. Journal of Economic Psychology, 25(1), 129-134.

Wakslak, C., & Trope, Y. (2009). The effect of construal level on subjective probability estimates. Psychological Science, 20(1), 52-58.

Whorf, B. L., Lee, P., Levinson, S. C., & Carroll, J. B. (2012). Language, thought, and reality: Selected writings of Benjamin Lee Whorf. Mit Press.

Wright, K. B. (2005). Researching Internet‐based populations: Advantages and disadvantages of online survey research, online questionnaire authoring software packages, and web survey services. Journal of ComputerMediated Communication, 10(3).

Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of consumer research, 37(2), 197-206.

Zizzo, D. J. (2011). Do dictator games measure altruism?. Handbook on the Economics of philanthropy, reciprocity and social enterprise, Luigino Bruni and Stefano Zamagni, eds., Edward Elgar, Forthcoming.

 

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Handelsingenieur
Publicatiejaar
2015
Kernwoorden
Share this on: