De beleving van het ouderschap na eiceldonatie

Ingeborg Van Soye Ingeborg Van Soye
De beleving van het ouderschap na eiceldonatie. Een kwalitatief onderzoek naar de wijze van communiceren door ouders na eiceldonatie en de beleving van de asymmetrie in het ouderschap.Promotor: prof. dr. Peter RoberTot op heden is er in de literatuur weinig onderzoek geleverd naar de beleving van de asymmetrie binnen het ouderschap na eiceldonatie. Objectief gezien schuilt er een asymmetrie tussen het genetisch (sociaal-biologisch) ouderschap van de vader en het sociaal-biologisch ouderschap van de moeder.

De beleving van het ouderschap na eiceldonatie

De beleving van het ouderschap na eiceldonatie. Een kwalitatief onderzoek naar de wijze van communiceren door ouders na eiceldonatie en de beleving van de asymmetrie in het ouderschap.

Promotor: prof. dr. Peter Rober

Tot op heden is er in de literatuur weinig onderzoek geleverd naar de beleving van de asymmetrie binnen het ouderschap na eiceldonatie. Objectief gezien schuilt er een asymmetrie tussen het genetisch (sociaal-biologisch) ouderschap van de vader en het sociaal-biologisch ouderschap van de moeder. Rapportages belichten voornamelijk de rol van het keuzeproces om donorconceptie al dan niet te vertellen aan de nakomelingen. Bij dit proces heeft men geen kennis over de langetermijngevolgen voor het kind en het gezin.

Vanuit dit gedachtegoed werd in deze masterproef getracht een antwoord te vinden op de vraag naar de beleving van het ouderschap na eiceldonatie, meer bepaald hoe ouders praten over het ouderschap na eiceldonatie en wat de beleving is van de asymmetrie in het ouderschap.

De vier participanten in ons onderzoek zijn twee ouderparen. De vrouwen werden eerder gediagnosticeerd met primaire amenorroe of prematuur ovarieel falen. Bij de mannen werd er geen oorzaak gevonden van verminderde vruchtbaarheid. Aan de hand van een kwalitatief onderzoek met behulp van ongestructureerde face-to-face diepte-interviews werden de ervaringen van de moeder en de vader grondig bestudeerd. Het betreft een longitudinale studie over een periode van twee jaar. De interviews werden gezamenlijk en apart afgenomen. Dit kort vóór en na de bevalling, en op de leeftijd van twee jaar wanneer het kind een eigen karakter heeft ontwikkeld. Door deze methode konden veranderingen opgemerkt worden binnen en tussen de ouderparen. De gegevens werden geanalyseerd op basis van de Grounded Theory benadering.

Moeders na eiceldonatie praten beduidend meer over hun infertiliteit en over de procedure van eiceldonatie. Echter, wanneer het gezin gevormd is, vermindert de noodzaak om het donorverhaal naar buiten te brengen. Het verlies van hun vruchtbaarheid blijft hun dagelijks leven op diverse wijzen beïnvloeden. Uitspraken over de al dan niet genetische verwantschap zijn hierbij van belang.

De ouders in deze studie geven aan geen asymmetrie te ervaren in het ouderschap. Het genetisch niet gerelateerd zijn van de moeder wordt gedeeltelijk gecompenseerd door het zwanger zijn en de bevalling. Ook wordt de klemtoon gelegd op het opvoedingsproces van het kind. De vaders beschouwen hun partners als gelijkwaardig in hun functie als ouder. Doch ervaren deze moeders meerdere bezorgdheden, zowel tijdens de zwangerschap als bij de bevalling alsook bij het grootbrengen van hun kind. Er is sprake van multipele complicaties en faalervaringen. Over het algemeen zijn deze moeders meer ongerust in vergelijking met vrouwen na een natuurlijke zwangerschap. Dit uit zich onder meer in de zorg om het kind al dan niet in te lichten over zijn of haar afkomst. De onvoorwaardelijke steun van de partner wordt door beide ouderfiguren als elementair geacht.

Het zou een meerwaarde bieden om na te gaan of de waargenomen patronen terug te vinden zijn in verder onderzoek.

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ENGLISH

The experience of the parenthood after egg donation. A qualitative study of the way of communicating by parents after egg donation and the experience of the asymmetry in the parenthood.

Promotor: prof. dr. Peter Rober

Until present, little research has been conducted in literature concerning the experience of the asymmetry within the parenthood after egg donation. Objectively, there lurks an asymmetry between the genetic (socio-biological) parenthood of the father and the socio-biological parenthood of the mother. Reports highlight mainly the role of the decision making process to decide whether or not to tell the descendants about the donor conception. In this process, one has no knowledge about the long-term consequences, neither for the child nor the family.

From this range of ideas, this master thesis tries to answer the question about the experience of the parenthood after egg donation, particularly how parents talk about the parenthood after egg donation and their experience of the asymmetry in the parenthood.

The four participants in our research are two parental couples. The women were previously diagnosed with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian failure. Among the men, there was no cause of reduced fertility. By means of qualitative research using unstructured face-to-face in-depth interviews, the experiences of both mother and father were studied thoroughly. This concerns a longitudinal study over a period of two years. The interviews were conducted together and separately shortly before and after childbirth, and at the age of two years when the child has developed an individual character. By this method, it was possible to notice changes in the parenthood and between the parents. The data were analysed based on the Grounded Theory approach.

Mothers, who have had an egg donation, talk significantly more about their infertility and about the egg donation procedure. However, when the family is formed, the necessity to talk about the donor story diminishes. The loss of their fertility continues to influence their daily lives in many ways. Statements about whether or not being genetically related are of importance in this respect.

The parents in this study indicate not to experience an asymmetry in the parenthood. The mother’s genetic unrelatedness is partially compensated by the events of pregnancy and childbirth. The process of raising the child is emphasised. The fathers consider their partners to be equal in their role as parents. Nonetheless, these mothers do experience several concerns, both during pregnancy and childbirth and in raising their child. There is talk of multiple complications and failure experiences. In general, these mothers are more anxious in comparison to women who have had a natural pregnancy. This expresses itself amongst other in the concern whether or not to inform the child about his or her origins. The unconditional support of the partner is considered elementary by both parent figures.

It would be an added value to determine whether the observed patterns are reflected in further research.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master of Science in de Seksuologie
Publicatiejaar
2014
Kernwoorden
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