Historicizing the Forensification of History

Ramses Delafontaine
De Rechter en De HistoricusOnze huidige Westerse maatschappij gaat op zoek naar antwoorden voor de toekomst in het verleden. Het falen van de communistische utopie, de gevaren van een ongebreideld kapitalisme, de uitdagingen van de multiculturele samenleving, de strijd voor het behoud van onze sociale verzorgingsstaat en het uitblijven van nieuwe ideologieën om op die uitdagingen een overkoepelend antwoord te bieden drijven ons collectief ertoe om voor de oplossing van problemen in het heden ons te laten inspireren door het verleden.

Historicizing the Forensification of History

De Rechter en De Historicus

Onze huidige Westerse maatschappij gaat op zoek naar antwoorden voor de toekomst in het verleden. Het falen van de communistische utopie, de gevaren van een ongebreideld kapitalisme, de uitdagingen van de multiculturele samenleving, de strijd voor het behoud van onze sociale verzorgingsstaat en het uitblijven van nieuwe ideologieën om op die uitdagingen een overkoepelend antwoord te bieden drijven ons collectief ertoe om voor de oplossing van problemen in het heden ons te laten inspireren door het verleden. Die oriëntering op het verleden vertaalt zich in een groeiende populariteit van musea, initiatieven rond erfgoed, herdenkingen van sociale of militaire strijd, het succes van de historische mythologie van het nationalisme en nog zoveel meer socio-culturele fenomenen.

Ondanks de populariteit van het verleden is de aanwezigheid van de historische discipline in deze activiteiten geen evidentie. Integendeel, historici en hun vak kampen met een niet te onderschatten sociaal legitimiteitsprobleem. Deze paradoxale verhouding tussen de populariteit van het verleden en de geringe appreciatie van de historische discipline kunnen omschreven worden als Clio’s moderne paradox. Eén van de meest controversiële ruimtes waarin het verleden en historici hun opwachting maken is de rechtszaal.

Het recht en geschiedenis hebben al sinds de Grieken en Romeinen een innige maar niet onbesproken relatie. De raakvlakken en samenwerking tussen beide kennisvelden zijn alleen maar versterkt na de Tweede Wereldoorlog. Historici worden bijvoorbeeld opgeroepen als expert getuigen om de rechter en de jury in de mogelijkheid te brengen om een historisch gefundeerd oordeel te vormen. Geschiedkundigen zijn actief in internationale tribunalen zoals het Internationaal Strafhof in Den Haag. Daarnaast hebben historici hun opwachting gemaakt in rechtszaken met betrekking tot Holocaustmisdadigers en Holocaustontkenners. Beide categorieën blijven vooral een Europese aangelegenheid. In de Gemenebest landen treden historici op als getuigen in juridische behandelingen van landrechten die de autochtone bevolking werden ontnomen. Ten slotte is de praktijk het best vertegenwoordigd in de Verenigde Staten van Amerika waar historici optreden als expert getuigen in burgerlijke rechtszaken.

Historici getuigen over een brede waaier van onderwerpen in de Amerikaanse rechtbanken gaande van landrechten, waterrechten, historische vervuiling van gronden, stemrechten tot productaansprakelijkheid. Die laatste categorie betreft producten als asbest, loodverf en sigaretten. Rokers spannen sinds de jaren vijftig van de vorige eeuw rechtszaken aan tegen de tabaksindustrie. Consumenten vonden dat ze bedot zijn door de tabaksbedrijven, die ondanks overtuigend wetenschappelijk en medisch bewijsmateriaal van het tegendeel hun producten met baanbrekende marketingtechnieken aan de man bleven brengen. Mede dankzij eigen wetenschappelijk onderzoek dat erop gericht was verwarring te zaaien over de gevaren van roken voor de gezondheid kon de tabaksindustrie ongestraft doorgaan met het verkopen van een dodelijk product.

Doordat het bijzonder moeilijk was voorgaande feiten te bewijzen in de rechtszaal en daarbij rekening houdend met de strategie van de advocatenkantoren die Big Tobacco verdedigden om het persoonlijke, financiële en professionele leven van de aanklagers tot een ware hel te maken werd voor 1986 geen enkele zaak gewonnen tegen de tabaksindustrie. Vanaf de jaren negentig van de vorige eeuw deden historici hun intrede als expert getuigen in tabaksrechtszaken. Tussen 1987 en juli 2013 getuigden 52 historici in 178 rechtszaken. Van die 52 waren er 49 die voor de verdediging getuigden, slechts drie historici getuigden in dienst van de aanklagers. Deze 49 historici hadden enkele karakteristieken gemeenschappelijk. Op één historicus na hadden ze allen geen voorafgaand onderzoek over de geschiedenis van tabak of de sigaret gedaan. Slechts twee van hen geven publiekelijk te kennen dat ze hebben getuigd in tabaksprocessen voor de industrie. Geen van hen allen hebben gepubliceerd over hun juridisch gerelateerd onderzoek. Enkele expert getuigen hebben meer dan een half miljoen dollar verdiend aan hun onderzoek als expert getuige. De getuigen die de industrie verdedigden onderzochten enkel documenten die hen door de advocaten van de tabaksindustrie werden gegeven. In tegenstelling hebben die historici die voor de verdediging hebben getuigd wel voorafgaande publicaties over tabak en zijn zij wel open over hun betrokkenheid als expert getuigen alsook over hun onderzoek.

Uiteindelijk werden de tabaksbedrijven in de loop van het vorige decennium meerdere malen veroordeeld voor de oplichting van het Amerikaanse publiek en het verkopen van schadelijke producten. Deze successen werden niet in het minst bekomen door de resultaten van het historisch onderzoek dat werd gevoerd op basis van de interne archieven van de tabaksindustrie die beschikbaar werden dankzij de tabaksrechtszaken. Ondanks deze vroegere veroordelingen blijven de tabaksrechtszaken doorgaan voor nieuwe individuele gevallen en bovendien kijken andere industrieën, zoals de alcohol of wapen industrie angstig toe hoe het de tabaksindustrie vergaat.

Historici als expert getuigen worden geconfronteerd met veel moeilijkheden en uitdagingen die typerend zijn voor de gehele beweging van de publieksgeschiedenis. Het feit dat historici zich meer en meer in hun professionele hoedanigheid buiten de klassieke muren van de academische burcht wagen betekent niet dat de vaste waarden van gefundeerd historisch onderzoek moeten worden verlaten. Het voorbeeld van de rechtszaken tegen de tabaksindustrie toont net aan hoe een kleine minderheid van historici kan voorkomen, door uitzonderlijk hoogstaand onderzoek, dat de verleidingen van de private markt de historische waarheid niet in het gedrang kunnen brengen. Academische reflectie is bij deze moeilijke evenwichtsoefening van essentiële aard. Vele betrokken historici zijn ook vragende partij voor de opstelling van ethische codes en handelingsvoorschriften die hen de kans bieden op een onafhankelijkere manier van de vraag van een cliënt te kunnen werken. Transparantie en peer review van onderzoek is een tweede belangrijke factor die moet worden nagestreefd.[1]

Jaarlijkse sterven 6 miljoen mensen wereldwijd ten gevolge van roken. Hoewel gestaag minder mensen in het Westen de gewoonte opnemen, zit roken in de lift in grote delen van de wereld. Historici moeten het initiatief nemen om lessen te trekken uit het verleden en uit hun eigen historische praktijk om vanuit het heden antwoorden te bieden voor de toekomst. Een vruchtbare samenwerking tussen academische reflectie en publiekshistorici is de sleutel van een historische discipline die haar legitimiteit terugwint door zich dienstbaar te stellen voor de maatschappij. 

[1] Zie de website gemaakt en onderhouden door de auteur: <http://delafontaineramses.wordpress.com/>.

 

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Schachtman N., "On Deadly Dust And Histrionic Historians: Preliminary Thoughts On History And Historians As Expert Witnesses In Products Liability Cases." In: Mealey's Litigation Report: Silica, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2003, pp. 1-6.

Schmidt P., "Big Tobacco Strikes Back at Historian in Court." In: Chronicle of Higher Education, Vol. 56, No. 12, 13/11/2009.

Schneider N. K. & Glantz S. A., "Nicotine Nazis Strike Again": a Brief Analysis of the Use of Nazi Rhetoric in Attacking Tobacco Control Advocacy." In: Tobacco Control, Vol. 17, No. 5, 2008, pp. 291-296.

Seffrin J., "Commentary: The Master Settlement Agreement in Historic Context." In: Health Promotion Practice, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. s18-s20.

Shallat T., "We Who Would Sell History?" In: The Public Historian, Vol. 1, No. 1, autumn 1978, pp. 81-82.

Shibuya K., Ciecierski C., Guindon E., Bettcher D. W., Evans D. B. & Murray C. J. L., "WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Development of an Evidence Based Global Public Health Treaty." In: BMJ, Vol. 327, pp. 154-157.

Sloan F. A., Trogdon J. G. & Mathews C. A., "Litigation and the Value of Tobacco companies." In: Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 24, 2005, pp. 427-447.

Smith P., Bansal-Travers M., O’Connor R., Brown A., Banthin C., Guardino-Colket S. & Cummings M., "Correcting Over 50 Years of Tobacco Industry Misinformation." In: The American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 690-698.

Soifer P., "The Litigation Historian: Objectivity, Responsibility, and Sources." In: The Public Historian, Vol. 5, No. 2, spring 1983, pp. 47-62.

Spillinger C., Larson J. E. & Law S. A., "Brief of 281 American Historians as Amici Curiae Supporting Appellees." In: The Public Historian, Vol. 12, No. 3, summer 1990, pp. 57-75.

Starr M. E., "The Marlboro Man: Cigarette Smoking and Masculinity in America." In: Journal of Popular Culture., Vol. 17, No. 4, 1984, pp. 45-57.

Swinger Jr. E. C., "Historians and Corporate Consulting." In: The Public Historian, Vol. 3, No. 3, summer 1981, pp. 101-103.

Tobey R. C., "The Public Historian as Advocate: Is Special Attention to Professional Ethics Necessary?" In: The Public Historian, Vol. 8, No. 1, winter 1986, pp. 21-30.

Vernick J. S., Rutkow L. & Teret S., "Public Health Benefits of Recent Litigation Against Tobacco Industry." In: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 298, No. 1, 2007, pp. 86-89.

Viscusi K. W., "False Claims in Tobacco Litigation junk Science Article." In: American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 96, No. 5, 2006, p. 767.

Wilson R., "Judging History: The Historical Record of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia." In: Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 3, 2005, pp. 908-942.

Williams J. C., "Standards of Professional Conduct in California." In: The Public Historian, Vol. 8, No. 1, winter 1986, pp. 57-59.

White H., "The Burden of History." In: History and Theory, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 111-134.

White H., " Historical Emplotment and the Problem of Truth.", pp. 37-53. In: Friedländer S. (ed.), Probing the Limits of Representation. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1992, p. 407.

s. n., "Expert Medical Testimony" In: Harvard Law Review, Vol. 10, No. 5, 1896, pp. 305-306.

s. n., "Witnesses. Experts. Compensation Exceeding Regular Fee." In: Harvard Law Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1909, pp. 235-236.

s.n., "Conversation with Sir Richard Doll." In: British Journal of Addiction, Vol. 86, No. 4, 1991, pp. 365-377.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monographs

Arendt H., Eichmann in Jerusalem : a Report on the Banality of Evil. Harmondsworth, Penguin books, 1976, p. 312.

Bédarida F. (ed.), The Social Responsibility of the Historian. Oxford, Berghahn, 1994, p. 104.

Bédarida F., Histoire, critique et responsabilité. Textes Réunis par Muc G. et Trebitsch M. Bruxelles, Complexe, 2003, p. 357.

Billiet B., Cassiman P. & Vanspeybrouck M., Het verleden in het heden en de plaats van de historicus in de maatschappij van vandaag. [The Past in The Present and the Place of the Historian in Society of Today] Ghent, Academia press, 2002, p. 187.

Brandt A. M., The Cigarette Century. The Rise, Fall and Deadly Persistence of a Product that Defined America. New York, Basic Books, 2007, p. 600.

Brayard F., Douglas L. & Fouché J-J., Le génocide des Juifs entre procès et histoire, 1943-2000. Brussels, Complexe, p. 308.

Burby J. B., “Inaugural lecture: The science of history, delivered in the Divinity school, Cambridge on January 26, 1903.” Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1903, p. 42.

Buruma I., The Wages of Guilt. Dutch Translation by T. Davids, Amsterdam, Atlas, 1994, p. 319.

Butler J., The Analogy of Religion. Third edition, London, John & Paul Knapton, 1740, p. 337.

Cahm E., The Dreyfus Affair in French Society and Politics. London, Longman, 1996, p. 211.

de Baets A., Responsible History. New York, Berghahn Books, 2008, p. 274.

Dumoulin O., Le rôle social de l’historien: de la chaire au prétoire. Paris, Albin Michel, 2003, p. 343.

Evans R. J., In Defence of History. London, Granta Books, 2000, p. 371.

Fraser D., Narrating the Holocaust in Australian War Crimes Trials. Lincoln, Nebraska, University of Nebraska Press, 2010, p. 408.

Foucault M., Discipline and Punish. The Birth of the Prison. Translation by Alan Sheridan, New York, Vintage Books, p. 333.

Friedländer S. (ed.), Probing the Limits of Representation: Nazism and the Final Solution. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1992, p. 407.

Ginzburg C., History, Rhetoric, and Proof. Hanover, New Hampshire, University Press of New England, 1999, p. 199.

Ginzburg C., The Judge and the Historian: Marginal Notes on a Late-Twentieth-Century Miscarriage of Justice. Translation by Anthony Shugaar. London, Verso, 1999, p. 211.

Glantz S. A., Slade J., Bero L. A., Hanauer P., Barnes D. E., The Cigarette Papers. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1998, p. 539.

Golsan R. J. (ed.), Memory, the Holocaust and French Justice: The Bousquet and Touvier Affairs. Hanover, New Hampshire, University Press of New England, 1996, p. 217.

Golsan R., The Papon Affair: Memory and Justice on Trial. New York, Routledge, 2000, p. 279.

Goodman J., Tobacco in History: the Cultures of Dependence. London, Routledge, 1993, p. 280.

Iggers G., The German Conception of History: The National Tradition of Historical Thought from Herder to the Present. Middletown, Connecticut, Wesleyan University Press, 1983, p. 388.

Iggers G., Historiography in the Twentieth Century : from Scienfic Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge. Middletown, Connecticut, Wesleyan University Press, 1997, p. 182.

Iggers G. (ed.), The Theory and Practice of History. Leopold von Ranke. London, New-York, Routledge, 2011, p. 148.

Jenkins K., At the Limits of History. Essays on Theory and Practice. New York, Routledge, 2009, p. 324.

Jeanneney J.-N., Le passé dans le prétoire: l'historien, le juge et le journaliste. Paris, Seuil, 1998, p. 165.

Kluger R., Ashes to Ashes: America’s Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris., New York, Vintage Books, 1997, p. 811.

Lipstadt D., Denying the Holocaust : the growing assault on truth and memory. New York, Free Press, 1993, p. 278.

Lorenz C., De constructive van het verleden. Amsterdam, Boom, 2008, p. 399. The English version of this book: C. Lorenz, Constructing the Past: An Introduction to the Philosophy of History. Princeton, New York, Princeton University Press, 2007.

Novick P., That Noble Dream. The "Objectivity Question" and the American Historical Profession. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1998, p. 648.

Osiel M., Mass Atrocity, Collective Memory and the Law. New Brunswick, New York, Transaction Publishers, 2012, p. 317.

Petrovic V., Historians as Expert Witnesses in the Age of Extremes. Budapest, doctoral dissertation, 2009, p. 382. Accessed via: <http://www.etd.ceu.hu/2009/hphpev01.pdf>, on 29/07/2013.

Posner E. A., Law and Social Norms. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2002, p. 260.

Posner R. A., Overcoming Law, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1995, p. 597.

Posner R. A., How Judges Think. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2008, p. 387.

Posner R. A., Law and Literature. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 2009, p. 570.

Proctor R. N., Cancer Wars: How Politics Shapes What We Know and Don’t Know About Cancer. New York, Basic Books, 1996, p. 356.

Proctor R. N., The Nazi War on Cancer. Princeton, New York, Princeton University Press, 1999, p. 380.

Proctor R. N.& Schiebinger L. (eds.), Agnotology. The Making & Unmaking of Ignorance., Palo Alto, California, Standford University Press, 2008, p. 312.

Proctor R. N., Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition. Berkeley and Los Angeles California, University of California Press, 2012, p. 752.

Ricoeur P., Histoire et vérité. Paris, Seuil, 2001, p. 408.

Rosenzweig R. & Thelen D. P., The Presence of the Past: Popular Uses of History in American Life. Columbia University Press, 1998, p. 291.

Rousso H., The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since 1944. Arthur Goldhammer translation. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1994, p. 384.

Samuel R., Theatres of Memory. Vol. 1 : Past and Present in Contemporary Culture. London, Verso, 1994, p. 479.

Wijffels A. (ed.), History in Court: Historical Expertise and Methods in a Forensic context. Leiden, Ius Deco, 2001, p. 336.

 

Unpublished Articles

Arvin A., "Amicus Curiae Brief from Standford University in Koballa v. R. J. Reynolds.", In: George Mason University's History News Network, 12/10/2009. Accessed via: <http://hnn.us/Pics2009/proctor/Stanford.html>, on 21/07/2013.

Blum A., "A Dissenting view of Robert Proctor by a fellow Anti-Smoking Advocate.", In: George Mason University's History News Network, 25/04/2010. Accessed via: <http://hnn.us/node/125505>, on 21/07/2013.

Brainard J., "Congressmen Seek Details on Reserachers With Ties to Tobacco Companies." In: The Chronicle of Higher Education, 23/10/2007. Accessed via: <http://chronicle.com/article/Congressmen-Seek-Details-on/39817>, on 29/07/2013.

Burnham J., "In Defense of Historians as Expert Witnesses: A Rebuttal to Jon Wiener." In: George Mason University's History News Network, 01/04/2010. Accessed via: <http://hnn.us/articles/124924.html>, on 29/07/2013.

Cohen P., "History for Hire in Industry Lawsuits." In: The New York Times, 14/06/2003. Accessed via: <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/14/arts/history-for-hire-in-industry-lawsuits.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm>, on 29/07/2013.

Crabbe N., “UF students caught in middle of tobacco case's controversy.” In: The Gainsville Sun, 08/12/2009. Accessed via: <http://www.gainesville.com/article/20091208/ARTICLES/912081008?p=1&tc=pg>, on 29/07/2013.

Gallman J. M., "Re 'Big Tobacco and the Historians'." In: The Nation, 09/03/2010. Accessed via: <http://www.thenation.com/article/re-big-tobacco-and-historians>, on 29/07/2013.

Grossman T. M., "Smoking Gun ... " In: The Nation, 31/03/2010 (edition of 19/04/2010). Accessed via: <http://www.thenation.com/article/letters-337>, on 29/07/2013.

Ingram D., "Judge Orders Tobacco Companies to Admit Deception." In: Reuters. Accessed via: <http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/27/us-usa-tobacco-idUSBRE8AQ18A20121127?fb_action_ids=4497202801467&fb_action_types=og.likes&fb_source=aggregation&fb_aggregation_id=246965925417366>, on 29/07/2013.

Kaney J. Jr., “Plaintiffs’ Motion for Reconsideration of Order Overruling Objections to Subpoena and for Protective Order Concerning Unpublished Manuscript.” In: History News Network, 12/10/2008, accessed via: <http://hnn.us/articles/118209.html>, on 29/07/2013.

Maggi L., "Bearing Witness for Tobacco.", In: The American Prospect, 09/11/2001. Accessed via: <http://prospect.org/article/bearing-witness-tobacco>, on 29/07/2013.

Martin B. W., "Working With Lawyers: A Historian's Perspective." In: The Organization of American Historians Newsletter, Vol. 30, No. 2, May 2002. Accessed via: <http://www.oah.org/pubs/nl/2002may/Martin.html>, on 29/07/2013.

Neuenschwander J. A., "Historians as Expert Witnesses: The View from the Bench." In: The Organization of American Historians Newsletter, Vol. 30, No. 3, Aug 2002. Accessed via: <http://www.oah.org/pubs/nl/2002aug/neuenschwander.html>, on 12/07/2013.

Nodddings N., "The Question of Aid From Tobacco Companies." In: The Chronicle of Higher Education.", brief to the editor 10/11/1993. Accessed via: <http://chronicle.com/article/The-Question-of-Aid-From/93116/>, on 04/04/2013.

Picker R., An Introduction to Game Theory and the Law. Coase Lecture series, The University of Chicago Law School, 20/04/1993, p. 25. Accessed via: <http://www.law.uchicago.edu/node/1306>, on 21/07/2013.

Proctor R. N., "Affidavit of Dr. Robert Proctor in Support of Plaintiffs’ Motion for Protective Order." In: History News Network, 12/10/2008, accessed via: <http://hnn.us/articles/118210.html#comment>, on 29/07/2013.

Proctor R. N., "Puffing on Polonium." In: The New York Times, 01/12/2006. Accessed via: <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/01/opinion/01proctor.html?_r=0>, on 29/07/2013.

Rosner D. & Markowitz G., "The Chemical Industry's Attack on Historians." In: George Mason University's History News Network, 5/12/2004. Accessed via: <http://hnn.us/articles/8730.html>, on 11/07/2013.

Norr R., "Cancer by the Carton." In: Reader’s Digest, December 1952, pp. 7-8. Consulted via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bcm92f00/pdf>, on 09/04/2013.

Schachtman N. A., "How Testifying Historians are Like Lawn-Mowing dogs." In: Schachtmanlaw blog, 15/05/2010. Accessed via: <http://schachtmanlaw.com/how-testifying-historians-are-like-lawn-mowing-dogs/>, on 02/04/2013.

Schachtman N. A., "Courting Clio: Historians and Their Testimony in Products Liability Litigation." In: Schachtmanlaw blog, 24/05/2010. Accessed via: <http://schachtmanlaw.com/courting-clio-historians-and-their-testimony-in-products-liability-litigation/ >, on 02/04/2013.

Schachtman N. A., "Counter Narratives for Hire." In: Schachtmanlaw blog, 24/10/2010. Accessed via: <http://schachtmanlaw.com/counter-narratives-for-hire/>, on 02/04/2013.

Schachtman N. A., "Narratives & Historians for Hire.", In: Schachtmanlaw blog, 15/12/2010. Accessed via: <http://schachtmanlaw.com/narratives-historians-for-hire/>, on 02/04/2013.

Van Voris B., "Florida Top Court Affirms Ruling Enabling Tobacco Suits." In: Bloomberg News, 14/03/2013. Accessed via: <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-14/florida-top-court-affirms-ruling-enabling-tobacco-suits.html>, on 21/07/2013.

Wiener J., "Cancer, Chemicals and History." In: The Nation, 20/01/2005 (edition of 07/02/2005). Accessed via: <http://www.thenation.com/article/cancer-chemicals-and-history>, on 11/07/2012.

Wiener J., "Big Tobacco and the Historians." In: The Nation, 25/02/2010 (edition of 15/03/2010). Accessed via: <http://www.thenation.com/article/big-tobacco-and-historians>, on 21/07/2013.

Wiener J., "Re 'Big Tobacco and the Historians', Wiener Replies.", In: The Nation, 09/03/2010. Accessed via: <http://www.thenation.com/article/re-big-tobacco-and-historians>, on 21/07/2013.

Wiener J., "Smoking Gun ... Wiener Replies.", In: The Nation, 31/03/2010 (edition of 19/04/2010). Accessed via: <http://www.thenation.com/article/letters-337>, on 21/07/2012.

Jospeh G. P., "Expert Evidence - Historians & Daubert.", In: Complex Litigation Blog, s.d. Accessed via:<http://josephnyc.com/blog/?blogID=372>, on 02/04/2013.

Jospeh G. P., "Applying Daubert and Rule 702 to Historians’ Testimony.", In: Complex Litigation Blog, s.d. Accessed via:<http://josephnyc.com/blog/?blogID=1239>, on 02/04/2013.

s. n., "Testifying for Tobacco.", In: George Mason University's History News Network, 10/12/2009. Accessed via: <http://hnn.us/blogs/entries/123833.html>, on 21/07/2013.

s.n., "Altria Improves Forecast for Year as Profit Rises 3%." In: The New York Times, 23/07/2013. Accessed via: <http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/24/business/altria-posts-3-increase-in-profit-and-improves-forecast.html>, on 29/07/2013.Unpublished Sources

"Transcript of the President’s New conference on Foreign and domestic Matters.", 24/05/1962, p. 35. Consulted via: <http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKPOF-056-007.aspx>, on 10/04/1962. An audio file is available on: <http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/Archives/JFKWHA-100.aspx>, the matter in question can be heard from 21:09 to 22:00, consulted on 27/07/2013.

"CCPH Standards of Professional Conduct", California Committee for the Promotion of History, 2006. Accessed via: http://www.csus.edu/org/ccph/ProfessionalHistorians/CCPHStandards2006.pdf, on 29/07/2013.

"NCPH Code of Ethics of and Professional Conduct.", The National Council on Public History, 12/04/2007. Accessed via: <http://ncph.org/cms/about/bylaws-and-ethics/>, on 29/07/2012.

Proctor R., "A HISTORICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF TOBACCO AND HEALTH IN THE U. S., 1954-1994.", Bates Number: 2075493217/3265, 06/11/1998, p. 49. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/vmm56c00>, on 29/07/2013.

"Professional Integrity and the OAH.", The Organization of American historian. Accessed via: <http://www.oah.org/pubs/nl/2003may/integrity.html>, on 29/07/2012.

"Smoking and Health: Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service.", U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, 1964, p. 387. Accessed via: <http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/ps/access/NNBBMQ.pdf>, on 29/07/2013.

"Statement on Standards of Professional Conduct.", American Historical Association, version of 2011, pp. 1-18. Accessed via: <http://www.historians.org/pubs/free/Statement-on-Standards-2011_FINAL.pdf>, on 29/07/2013.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Law

 

"Federal Rules of Evidence", In: Federal Evidence Review, 2012, pp. 1-45. Accessed via: <http://federalevidence.com/downloads/rules.of.evidence.pdf>, on 29/07/2013.

 

 

 

 

Litigation

Daubert, v. Merell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc.,(509 U.S. 579, 113 S.Ct. 2786), 1992. Accessed via: <http://www.law.ufl.edu/faculty/little/topic8.pdf>, on 29/07/2012, pp. 2-10.

Frye v. United States., (293 F. 1013 D.C.. Cir), 1923. Accessed via: <http://www.law.ufl.edu/faculty/little/topic8.pdf>, on 29/07/2012, p. 1.

United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc. Final Opinion, 2006, p. 1683. Accessed via: <http://www.library.ucsf.edu/sites/all/files/ucsf_assets/FinalOpinion_full_version.pdf>, on 29/07/2012,.

U.S. Supreme Court, United States v. American Tobacco Co., (221 U.S. 106, 193), 1911. Accessed via: <http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/221/106/case.html>, on 29/07/2013.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BAT Documents, Sorted by Date

1953

Teague C. E., "Survey of Cancer Research with Emphasis upon Possible Carcinogens in Tobacco.", 02/02/1953, p. 23. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jyb77a00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

J. Garland, "Cancer of the Lung." In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 249, No. 11, 1953, pp. 465466. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/iwt88h00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

American Tobacco, "Press Release.", 26/11/1953, p. 5. Accessed via: <http://tobaccodocuments.org/ness/6746.html>, on 09/04/2013.

Goss B. C., "Background Material on the Cigarette Industry Client.", 15/12/1953, pp. 1-5. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ufu91f00/pdf>, on 09/04/1953.

Hartnett T. V., "Memorandum from T. V. Hartnett.", 15/12/1953, p. 4. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kvl30c00/pdf>, on 09/04/2013.

Goss B. C., "Background Material on the Cigarette Industry Client.", 15/12/1953, pp. 1-5. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ufu91f00/pdf>, on 09/04/1953.

Hill & Knowlton, "Report of Conversation Between Carl Thompson and Judge Barnes. ", 31/12/1953, p. 3. Accessed via: <http://tobaccodocuments.org/ness/3796.html>, on 21/07/2013.

1954

Tobacco Industry Research Committee, "A Frank Statement to Cigarette smokers.", 04/01/1954, p. 1. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qxp91e00/pdf>, on 09/04/2013.

Dupuis R. N., "Confidential Memo to George Wiessman and Parker McComas.", 31/03/1954, p. 1. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/etx74e00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

Hill & Knowlton, "A scientific Perspective on the Cigarette Controversy.", 03/05/1954, p. 21. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/wye21a00/pdf>, on 09/04/2013.

1957

Burney L. E., "For Release in P.M. Newspapers.", 12/07/1957, p. 2. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ihm1aa00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

1958

Philip Morris, "Another Frank Statement to Smokers.", 12/12/1958, p. 3. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ifh48d00/pdf>, on 09/04/2013.

1959

Wakeham H., "An Opinion on Cigarette Smoking and Cancer.", 22/09/1959, p. 2. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/nqs82i00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

Talbott J. H., "Smoking and Lung Cancer." In: The Journal Of the American Medical Association, Vol. 171, No. 15, 1959, p. 2014. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ovi3aa00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

1961

Wynder E. L., "An Appraisal of the Smoking-Lung-Cancer Issue." In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 264, No. 24, 1961, pp. 1235-1240. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/zmy29d00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

Little C. C., "An Appraisal of the Smoking-Lung-Cancer Issue." In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 264, No. 24, 1961, pp. 1241-1245. Accessed via: <http://tobaccodocuments.org/lor/00325384-5388.html>, on 10/04/2013.

Garland J., "The Great Debate" In: New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 264, No. 24, 1961, p. 1266. Accessed via: <http://tobaccodocuments.org/lor/00325389.html>, on 10/04/2013.

Wakeham H., "1961 Wakeham Presentation to R&D Committee, New York Office.", 15/11/1961, p. 4. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/mvx88d00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

1962

Hill J. W., et al., "Smoking Health and Statistics: the Story of the Tobacco Accounts.", 26/02/1962, p. 35. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xtq56b00/pdf>, on 09/04/2013.

1964

Blasingame F. J. L., "Full Text of AMA Lettor of Testimony to F.T.C." In: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 188, No. 1, 1964, p. 31. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/upp47h00/pdf>, on 12/04/2012.

"Press Conference by Surgeon General’s Committee on Smoking and Health.”, 11/01/1964, p. 35. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kag33f00/pdf>, on 11/04/2013.

Rodgman A., "The Analysis of Cigarette Smoke condensate.", 12/02/1964, p. 70. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kyv35d00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

Little C. C., "Confidential Memorandum: Meeting with Dr. Peter V. V. Hamill on April 29.", 29/04/1964, p. 2. Consulted via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dfx10a00/pdf>, on 10/04/2013.

Greenberg D. S., "Tobacco: After Publicity Surge, Surgeon General’s Report Seems to Have Little Enduring Effect." In: Science, Vol. 145, No. 3636, 1964, pp. 1021-1022. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/nrn18c00/pdf>, on 12/04/2013.

"Cigarette advertising Code.", 1964, p. 8. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/documentStore/t/b/m/tbm09c00/Stbm09c00.pdf>, on 29/07/2013.

1966

Dunn W. L. & Johnston M., "Market Potential of a Health Cigarette.", 06/1966, p. 22. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kzz82i00/pdf>, on 29/07/2013.

1984

Burrows D., “Younger Adult Smokers,: Strategies and Opportunities.”, 29/02/1984, p. 95. Bates Number: 505458066/8160, accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bot15d00>, on 29/07/2013.

1987

Edelman D., “IFOTAB ETS-Project: The Overall Plan.” 12/03/1987, p. 14. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bau30c00/pdf>, on 29/07/2013.

1998

R. Proctor, "A Historical Reconstruction of Tobacco and Heatlh in the U. S., 1954-1994.", 06/11/1998, p. 49. Bates Number: 2075493217/3265. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/vmm56c00>, on 29/07/2013.

2002

Deposition of Robert Neal Proctor, Ph.D., United States of America v. Philip Morris Inc. 12/07/2002, p. 253. Bates Number: PROCTORR071202. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bzo11b00>, on 29/07/2013.

Deposition of Robert Neal Proctor, Ph.D., July 12, 2002 , United States of America v. Philip Morris Inc. 12/07/2002, p. 253. Bates Number: PROCTORR071202. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bzo11b00>, on 29/07/2013.

Deposition of Kenneth Ludmerer, M. D., August 7, 2002, United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 07/08/2002, p. 250. Bates Number: LUDMERERK080702. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/uuo11b00>, on 29/07/2013.

Deposition of Kenneth Ludmerer, M. D., August 8, 2002, United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 08/08/2012, p. 43. Bates Number: LUDMERERK080802. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xuo11b00>, on 29/07/2013.

Deposition of Allan M. Brandt, Ph.D., August 15, 2002, United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 15/08/2002, p. 360. Bates Number: BRANDTA081502. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/elk79a00>, on 29/07/2013.

Deposition of Allan M. Brandt, Ph.D., August 16, 2002, United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 16/08/2002, p. 282. Bates Number: BRANDTA081602. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/dlk79a00>, on 29/07/2013.

Deposition of Peter Calvin English, M.D., Ph.D., August 23, 2002, United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 23/08/2002, p. 253. Bates Number: ENGLISHP082302. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qqo11b00>, on 29/07/2013.

2004

Plaintiff's Opening Statement, September 21, 2004 [a.m.], United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 21/09/2004, p. 114. Bates Number: POSDOJ092104AM. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/muj79a00>, on 29/07/2013.

2005

United States' Motion in Limine to Exclude Expert Testimony of Peter C. English, May 5, 2004, United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 05/05/2004, p. 97. Bates Number: USPMUSMOT0505042. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/jrp08h00>, on 29/07/2013.

Defendants' Closing Statement, June 8, 2005 [a.m.], United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 08/06/2005, p. 28. Bates Number: DCSDOJ060805AM. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/xik79a00>, on 29/07/2013.

Defendants' Opposition to United States' Motion in Limine to Exclude Expert Testimony of Peter C. English, June 7, 2004, p. 9. United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc. Bates Number: USPMDRSP060704. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/rap08h00>, on 29/07/2013.

United States' Reply in Support of Motion in Limine to Exclude Expert Testimony of Peter C. English, June 22, 2004, United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 22/06/2004, p. 9. Bates Number: USPMUSRPLY062204. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/tpp08h00>, on 29/07/2013.

Order #614 [Re: United States' Motion in Limine to Exclude Expert Testimony of Peter C. English], July 29, 2004, United States of America v. Philip Morris USA Inc., 29/07/2004, p. 2. Bates Number: USPMORDER072904. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/bno08h00>, on 29/07/2013.

Sine Dato

Brown & Williamson, “Smoking and Health Proposal.”, s.d., p. 9. Bates Number: 690010951-690010959. Accessed via: <http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/zqy56b00/pdf>, on 29/07/2013.

 

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Geschiedenis
Publicatiejaar
2013
Kernwoorden
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