Het effect van emoties op de perceptie van een free sample

Thami Bryon
Via een literatuurstudie en een experiment werd nagegaan of dat personen in een positieve en negatieve emotionele toestand een andere beoordeling geven bij het uittesten van een free sample.

Hebben emoties een effect op de beoordeling van een free sample?

Inleiding

“84 procent van de volwassenen in de laatste zes maanden heeft al eens een free sample uitgeprobeerd” (Marketing Week, 1997). Deze stelling bevestigd dat sampling een veel gebruikte promotietool in de marketingwereld. Maar heb je ook al eens afgevraagd welk effect emoties hierbij hebben? Welk effect dat emoties hebben specifiek op de beoordeling van een free sample? 

Free sampling

Free sampling, het gratis uitdelen van producten, is geen nieuw begrip in de wereld van sales en marketing. Hierdoor kunnen personen het product kunnen uittesten zonder het product hiervoor aan te kopen (Mooy & Robben, 2002). Via free sampling kan de retailer een zintuigelijke ervaring bieden in de vorm van het testen van het product (Spence, Puccinelli, Grewal & Roggeveen, 2014). Het is dan ook bewezen dat free sampling een stimulerend effect heeft op de verkoop. Darpy (2000) beargumenteert dat de beslissing van aankopen wordt uitgesteld door free sampling en onmiddellijk beïnvloed wordt door het ‘ervaren’ van de sample.Hoewel free sampling een veelgebruikte strategie is in de bedrijfswereld, komt dit onderwerp in de literatuur relatief weinig aan bod (Bawa & Shoemaker, 2004; Ben Amor & Guilbert, 2009; Heilman, Lakishyk & Radas, 2011; Heiman et al., 2001). 

Sampling, het overkoepelend concept, is een manier om klantgerichte promotie te voeren (Kotler, Armstrong & Saunders, 2000). Onder samplingkunnen product gratis worden aangeboden, free sampling zoals bijvoorbeeld in-store sampling, of aangeboden aan verlaagde prijzen (De Pelsmacker, Geuens & Van den Bergh, 2007). Dit laatste behoort niet tot de omvang van deze thesis, maar illustreert wel dat free samplingniet de enige variant is onder deze noemer. Het onderscheid moet echter gemaakt worden tussenfree sampling en in-store sampling. In-store sampling is free sampling die plaatsvindt in de winkel. 

Free sampling heeft een hoge relevantie voor de bedrijfswereld omdat het is een veelgebruikte marketingtool is (Heiman, McWilliams, Shen & Zilberman, 2001; Lammers, 1991). Daarnaast zijn emoties ook een belangrijk aspect in de wereld van marketing (Walsh, Shiu, Hassan, Michaelidou & Beatty, 2011). Vervolgens is free sampling een marketingstrategie die weinig onderzocht is (Bawa & Shoemaker, 2004; Ben Amor & Guilbert, 2009; Heilman, Lakishyk & Radas, 2011; Heiman, McWilliams, Shen, & Zilberman, 2001). Door de praktische toepassingen van beide aspecten is hier gekozen om beide onderwerpen te integreren in één onderzoeksvraag: ‘Wat is het effect van emoties op de perceptie van een free sample?’ 

Onderzoek

Om de onderzoeksvraag te beantwoorden, wordt er via literatuurstudie dieper ingegaan op het fenomeen ‘free sampling’. Ook wordt de rol van emoties en de gemoedstoestand van de consument bij het beoordelen van samplesen free samples verder uitgediept. Via een experiment wordt er nagegaan of personen een een andere beoordeling geven aan een product als ze zich in een bepaalde emotionele toestand bevinden. 

Onderzoek geeft aan dat emotie een invloed heeft op de beoordeling van producten (DeSteno, Petty, Rucker, Wegener & Braverman, 2004; Lerner & Keltner, 2000). De beoordeling van free sampling kan dus afhankelijk zijn van de emotionele toestand waar de consument zich in bevindt. Aan de hand van onderzoek kan men het effect van emoties op de beoordeling van een product experimenteel meten. Onderzoeksinspanningen richten zich dan ook op de vraag of emoties gestuurd kunnen worden en welke strategie hiervoor het meest geschikt is (DeSteno, Petty, Rucker & Wegener, 2000). Gezien emoties een effect hebben op de beoordeling van producten, is het belangrijk dat bedrijven hierop focussen. Zo kan de beoordeling van een product beïnvloed worden indien bedrijven inspelen op de emoties hun klanten. 

De beoordeling van een free sample kan mogelijks verschillen van een gewone productbeoordeling. Uit de literatuur blijkt namelijk dat er mogelijks een andere context speelt wanneer producten als ‘gratis’ gezien worden. Ariely (2008) haalt aan dat personen zich irrationeel kunnen gedragen wanneer een product gratis wordt aangeboden. Daarbij maken consumenten irrationele beslissingen waarbij gekozen wordt voor gratis producten ook al is dit economisch gezien niet de beste keuze. Mogelijks biedt deze context andere resultaten dan onderzoeken waarbij de gemoedstoestand van consumenten op productbeoordeling wordt nagegaan. 

Maar de vraag is: hebben emoties een effect op de beoordeling in het geval van het uittesten van een free sample?

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2018
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