Het principe van "common but differentiated responsibilities" in het internationaal milieurecht.

Ségolène de Borchgrave
Analyse en vergelijking van de toepassingen van het "common but differentiated responsibilities" principe in het internationaal milieurecht. Onderzoek naar een mogelijke kwalificatie als algemeen principe van internationaal milieurecht.

Gezocht: rechtvaardigheid in het internationaal milieurecht

Klimaatverandering, het gat in de ozonlaag, biodiversiteitsverlies,… Je hebt er waarschijnlijk al van gehoord. Het zijn milieuproblemen waaronder heel onze planeet lijdt, en waar bijgevolg samenwerking tussen alle landen nodig is om daar verandering in te brengen. Alle landen moeten dus hun steentje bijdragen. Sommigen hebben door hun jarenlange vervuiling echter meer bijgedragen tot de milieuproblemen dan anderen en/of beschikken over meer middelen om iets te doen aan deze problemen. Is het dan niet rechtvaardiger als zij een groter steentje bijdragen dan de overige landen? 

Vier letters - een immense impact

Dit vraagstuk kent een specifiek principe in het internationaal milieurecht, namelijk het principe van “gemeenschappelijke maar gedifferentieerde verantwoordelijkheden”, beter bekend onder het Engelse “common but differentiated responsibilities” en de afkorting CBDR. Het principe koppelt het besef dat iedereen verantwoordelijkheid draagt in de strijd tegen grootschalige milieuproblemen (gemeenschappelijke verantwoordelijkheden) aan de erkenning van het feit dat sommige staten evenwel beter geplaatst zijn dan anderen om in deze strijd zwaardere verantwoordelijkheden op te nemen (gedifferentieerde verantwoordelijkheden). Het “beter geplaatst zijn” hangt af van verschillende factoren, zoals meer bijdragen tot het milieuprobleem dan anderen of het beschikken over meer middelen dan anderen om het probleem te adresseren. In de praktijk leidt dit dus meestal tot verschillende verplichtingen voor ontwikkelde landen, enerzijds, en ontwikkelingslanden, anderzijds.

Het principe verscheen ten tonele dankzij de Verklaring van Rio van 1992 en is sindsdien niet meer weg te denken uit het internationaal milieurecht. Als je naar verschillende milieuverdragen en hun protocollen kijkt, zie je dat telkens een belangrijke rol is weggelegd voor CBDR: het Weens Ozonverdrag en het Montreal Protocol, het Klimaatverdrag en het Kyoto Protocol, het Biodiversiteitsverdrag, het Desertificatieverdrag,… De manier waarop het principe wordt toegepast in deze verdragen en protocollen, is echter zeer divers. De zwaardere verplichtingen bestaan vaak uit het verschaffen van financiële en technologische steun aan de ontwikkelingslanden of het zich verbinden tot strengere emissiereductiepercentages of -schema’s dan de ontwikkelingslanden. De ene keer bestaat er een grote kloof tussen de verschillende verplichtingen die ontwikkelde landen en ontwikkelingslanden hebben, de andere keer is de differentiatie tussen beide categorieën eerder gering. De concrete invulling CBDR varieert naargelang het voorliggend probleem. 

"Ontwikkelingslanden hebben geen recht op een verschillende behandeling!"

Dat CBDR zoveel verschillende toepassingen kan hebben, is zowel een voordeel als een nadeel. Het probleem is namelijk dat landen tijdens verdragsonderhandelingen het zeer moeilijk eens geraken over of en hoe het principe ditmaal zal toegepast worden. Doorheen de jaren hebben de ontwikkelde landen en ontwikkelingslanden dikwijls lijnrecht tegenover elkaar gestaan. De ontwikkelingslanden vinden onder meer dat ze recht hebben op een differentiële behandeling, een visie die niet bepaald warm onthaald wordt door de ontwikkelde landen. Zo haalden de Verenigde Staten regelmatig tijdens verdragsonderhandelingen allerhande creatieve trucjes boven om te vermijden dat CBDR effectief als een recht beschouwd zou kunnen worden…

Doorbraak op til?

De meest recente intiatieven in het kader van ozondepletie en klimaatverandering, waaronder het bekende Akkoord van Parijs, leken evenwel een scharniermoment te betekenen voor CBDR. Niet alleen zie je gelijkaardige tendenzen in de manieren waarop het principe in deze initiatieven wordt toegepast, ook de gemoederen leken ietwat bedaard te zijn nu enkele voordien zeer sceptische ontwikkelde landen zich uitdrukkelijk achter het principe schaarden. 

De veelvuldige toepassing van CBDR in verdragen en de recente initiatieven die lijken tegemoet te komen aan verschillende euvels die met het principe gepaard gingen, doen de vraag rijzen of CBDR anno 2018 deel uitmaakt van het algemeen internationaal milieurecht. Tot nu toe werd aangenomen dat wanneer CBDR vervat, gereflecteerd of vermeld wordt in verdragen, het principe enkel bindend inter partes is en bovendien onderhevig is aan de sterkte of zwakte van de desbetreffende verdragsbepalingen. Zijn we daarentegen op het punt gekomen dat CBDR als een zogenaamd algemeen principe van internationaal milieurecht kan beschouwd worden, dan is de normatieve kracht van het principe niet meer afhankelijk van een verdrag. CBDR is in dat geval een erga omnes bindende rechtsnorm. Voor ontwikkelingslanden zou dit heel wat perspectieven bieden. Te denken valt aan financiële steun die nu niet meer zou afhangen van de bereidheid van ontwikkelde landen om dit in een verdragsverplichting te gieten, maar een op zichzelf staande verplichting zou worden in het internationaal milieurecht… 

Mijn thesis vergelijkt in eerste instantie de verschillende manieren waarop het principe toegepast kan worden, met oog voor de recente ontwikkelingen. Het tracht hierbij antwoord te vinden op de volgende vragen: hoe wordt gedifferentieerd, tussen wie wordt gedifferentieerd en op basis waarvan wordt gedifferentieerd? De antwoorden op deze vragen zullen belangrijk zijn in het tweede deel van mijn thesis. Hierin gaan we namelijk onderzoeken of CBDR ondertussen deel uitmaakt van het algemeen internationaal milieurecht en wat de gevolgen daarvan zouden zijn. De scriptie wordt uiteindelijk afgesloten met een blik op de toekomst, waarbij we naar de evolutie van CBDR in de internationale en nationale rechtspraak kijken en een zeer belangrijk initiatief binnen de Algemene Vergadering van de Verenigde Naties onder de loep nemen. 

Bibliografie

Verdragen

Charter of the United Nations, 26 juni 1945.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 30 oktober 1947.

  • Protocol amending the General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade to Introduce a Part IV on Trade and Development, 8 februari 1965.

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, 23 mei 1969, UNTS vol. 1155, 354.

The Marrakesh Agreement Establishing The World Trade Organization, 15 april 1994, UNTS vol. 1867, 3.

  • Protocol Amending The Marrakesh Agreement Establishing The World Trade Organization, 27 november 2014.

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 22 maart 1985, UNTS vol.1513, 293.

  • Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 16 september 1987, UNTS vol. 1522, 3
    • London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 29 juni 1990, UNTS vol. 
    • Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 14 oktober 2016.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 9 mei 1992, UNTS vol.1771, 107.

  • Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 11 december 1997, UNTS vol.2303, 162.
  • Paris Agreement, 12 december 2015.

Convention on Biological Diversity, 5 juni 1992, UNTS vol.1760, 79.

  • Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, 29 januari 2000, UNTS vol.2226, 208.
  • Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 29 oktober 2010.

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, 17 juni 1994, UNTS vol.1954, 3.

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 22 mei 2001, UNTS vol. 2256, 119.

Minamata Convention on Mercury, 10 oktober 2013.

Nationalewetgeving en resoluties

US Senate Resolution 98 (“Byrd-Hagel Act”), 105thCong., 143 Cong. Rec., S8138-39, 1997.

Rechtspraak

Internationaal

Internationaal Gerechtshof

Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Eilanden t. Verenigd Koninkrijk), ICJ Reports 2016, 833.

Jurisdictional Immunities of  the  State (Duitsland t. Italië; Interventie van Griekenland), ICJ Reports 2012, 99.

Case concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentinië t. Uruguay), ICJ Reports 2010, 14.

Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project case (Hongarije t. Slowakije), ICJ Reports 1997, 7.

Continental Shelf case (Libië t. Malta), ICJ Reports 1985, 13.                                            

Case concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicaragua t. Verenigde Staten), ICJ Reports 1986, 14.

North Sea Continental Shelf case (Federale Republiek Duitsland t. Denemarken; Federale Republiek Duitsland t. Nederland), ICJ Reports 1969, 3.

South West Africa case, Second Phase (Ethiopië t. Zuid-Afrika; Liberia t. Zuid-Afrika), ICJ Reports 1966, 6.

Permanent Internationaal Gerechtshof

Minority Schools in Albania, 1935 PCIJ series A/B, nr. 64. 

Wereldhandelsorganisatie

WHO, Report of the Appellate Body United States - Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products - Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Malaysia, 22 oktober 2001, WT/DS58/AB/RW.

WHO, Report of the Panel United States – Import Prohibition Of Certain Shrimp And Shrimp Products - Recourse to Article 21.5 by Malaysia, 6 november 1998, WT/DS58/RW.

Nationaal

Arresten

Thomson v. Minister for Climate Change Issues, Wellington High Court (Nieuw Zeeland), 2 november 2017, NZHC 733. 

Uitspraak Stichting Urgenda v. de Staat der Nederlanden, Rechtbank van Den Haag (Nederland),  24 juni 2015, ECLI:NL:RBDHA:2015:7145. 

Dagvaardingen

Dagvaarding Mataatua District Maori Council v. New Zealand, 4 juli 2017, WAI 2607, http://blogs2.law.columbia.edu/climate-change-litigation/wp-content/upl….

Dagvaarding Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz v. Bundesrat, 25 oktober 2016, https://klimaseniorinnen.ch/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/request_KlimaSen….

Dagvaarding VZW Klimaatzaak v. de Federale Overheid het Koninkrijk België,  het Waals Gewest, het Vlaams Gewest en het Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, 1 juni 2015, www.klimaatzaak.eu/documents/dagvaarding_nl.pdf.

Dagvaarding Stichting Urgenda v. de Staat der Nederlanden, 20 november 2013, www.urgenda.nl/documents/DagvaardingKlimaatzaak19-11-13.pdf.

Soft law documenten

Voorbereidende documenten en COP/MOP Beslissingen

Weens Ozonverdrag en Montreal Protocol

Dec. XXIX/1, Report of the Combined Eleventh Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the Twenty-Ninth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 2017, Montreal, UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Conv.11/7-UNEP/OzL.Pro.29/8.

Annex I, Report of the Twenty-Eighth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 2016, Kigali, UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.28/CRP/10.

Annex IV, Report of the Nineteenth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 2007, Montreal, UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.19/7. 

Annex II, Report of the Tenth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1998, Cairo, UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.10/9.

Dec. IV/18, Report of the Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1992, Kopenhagen, UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.4/15.

Dec. IV/7, Report of the Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1992, Kopenhagen, UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.4/15. 

Dec. II/8, Report of the Second Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1990, Londen, UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.2/3.

Dec. I/12H, Report of the First Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1989, Helsinki, UN Doc. UNEP/OzL.Pro.1/5.

UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol en Akkoord van Parijs

Dec. 1/CP.21, Report of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Changeon its Twenty-first session, 2015, Parijs, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2015/10/Add.1.

Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action on the twelfth part of its second session, 2015, Paris, UN Doc. FCCC/ADP/2015/L.6.

Dec. 1/COP.20, Report of the Conference of  the  Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Changeon its Twentieth session, 2014, Lima, UN Doc.FCCC/CP/2014/10/Add.1.

Dec. 1/CP.18, Report of  the  Conference of  the  Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on  its Eighteenth Session, 2012, Doha, UN Doc.FCCC/CP/2012/8/Add.1.

Dec. 2/CP.18, Report  of  the Conference  of  the Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on  its Eighteenth Session, 2012, Doha, UN Doc.FCCC/CP/2012/8/Add.1.

Dec. 2/CP.17, Report  of  the Conference  of  the Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on  its Seventeenth Session, 2011, Durban, UN Doc.FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1.

Dec. 3/COP.17, Report of  the  Conference of  the  Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on  its Seventeenth Session, 2011, Durban, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1.

Dec. 1/CP.16, Report  of  the Conference  of  the Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on  its Sixteenth Session, 2010, Cancun, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.1.

Dec. 2/CP.15, Report  of  the Conference  of  the Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on  its Fifteenth Session, 2009, Kopenhagen, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2009/11/Add.1.

Dec. 1/CP.13, Report  of  the Conference  of  the Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on  its Thirteenth Session, 2007, Bali, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/2007/6/Add.1.

Dec. 1/CMP.3, Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the  meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its third session, 2007, Bali, UN Doc. FCCC/KP/CMP/2007/9/Add.1.

Dec. 27/CMP.1, Report of the Conference of the Parties serving as the  meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol on its First Session, 2005, Montreal, UN Doc. FCCC/KP/CMP/2005/8/Add.3.

Dec. 12/CP.3, Report of  the  Conference of  the  Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on  its  Third Session, 1997, Kyoto, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/1997/7/Add.1.

Dec. 12/CP.2, Report of  the  Conference of  the  Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on  its Second Session, 1996, Geneva, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/1996/15/Add.1.

Dec. 1/CP.1, Report of the Conference  of  the Parties to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change on its First Session,1995, Berlijn, UN Doc. FCCC/CP/1995/7/Add.1.

CBD, Cartagena Protocol en Nagoya Protocol

Dec. VI/24(A), Report of the Sixth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 2002, Den Haag, UN Doc. UNEP/CBD/COP/6/20.

Dec. III/8, Report of the Third Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1996, Buenos Aires, UN Doc. UNEP/CBD/COP/3/38.

Dec. 1/2, Report of the First Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, 1994, Nassau, UN Doc. UNEP/CBD/COP/1/1.

Report of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Convention on Biological Diversity on the Work of its Fifth Session, 1991, Genève, UN Doc. UNEP/Bio.Div/N5-INC.3/4.

Report of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Convention on Biological Diversity on the Work of its Second Session, 1991, Nairobi, UN Doc. UNEP/Bio.Div/N4-INC.2/5.

UNCCD

Dec. 6/COP.7, Report of the Conference of the Parties on its Seventh Session, 2005, Nairobi, UN Doc. ICCD/COP7/16/Add.1.

Report of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee to elaborate a Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa on the work of its Second Session, 1993, Nairobi, UN Doc. A/AC.241/12.

POP Conventie

Dec. SC-8/1, Report of the Conference of the Parties to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants on the work of its eighth meeting, 2017, Genève, UN Doc. UNEP/POPS/COP.8/32. 

Report of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for an International Legally Binding Instrument for Implementing International Action on Certain Persistent Organic Pollutants on the Work of its Second Session, 1999, Nairobi, UN Doc. UNEP/POPS/INC.2/6.

Documenten gerelateerd aan de GEF en het MPMF

Report on the Seventh Replenishment of the GEF Trust Fund, 2018, GEF/A.6/05/Rev.01.

Report of the Eighteenth Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, 2017, Montreal, UNEP/OzL.Pro/ExCom/80/59.

Outstanding Issues Related To The Nagoya Protocol Implementation Fund, 2011,  GEF/C.40/11/Rev.1.

Operational Guidelines For The Application Of The Incremental Cost Principle, 14 mei 2007, GEF/C.31/12

Resoluties, verklaringen en rapporten

UNGA Resolution Towards a Global Pact for the Environment, 10 mei 2018, UN Doc. A/72/L.51.

ILC, Report of the International Law Commission of its Sixty-ninth Session, 2017, UN Doc. A/72/10.

UNGA Resolution Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 25 september 2015, UN Doc. A/RES/70/1.

ILA, Declaration of Legal Principles relating to Climate Change, 2014, Washington, Res. 2/2014.

UNGA Resolution The Future We Want, 27 juli 2012, UN Doc. A/RES/66/288.

ILA, Sofia Guiding Statements on the Judicial Elaboration of the 2002 New Delhi Declaration of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, 2012, Sofia.

ILA, New Delhi Declaration of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, 2002, New Delhi, Res. 3/2002.

Report of the First Meeting of the Open-Ended Ad Hoc Working Group on Biosafety, 1996, Aarhus, UN Doc. UNEP/CBD/BSWG/1/4.

Declaration on Environment and Development, 14 juni 1992, Rio de Janeiro, UN Doc. A/CONF.151/5/Rev.1 (Vol. I).

Report Of The United Nations Conference On Environment And Development, 1992, Rio de Janeiro, UN Doc. A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. IV).

Report of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate change on the Work of its First Session, 1991, Washington, UN Doc. A/AC.237/6.

Beijing Ministerial Declaration on Environment and Development, 19 juni 1991.

UNGA Resolution UN Conference on Environment and Development, 22 december 1989, UN Doc. A/RES/44/228. 

The Noordwijk Declaration on Climate Change, 7 november 1989.

The Hague Declaration on the Environment, 11 maart 1989.

UNGA Resolution Development of International Economic Cooperation, 16 september 1975, UN Doc. A/RES/S-7/3362. 

UNGA Resolution Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States, 12 december 1974,UN Doc. A/RES/29/3281.

Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 16 juni 1972, Stockholm, UN Doc. A/CONF/48/14/Rev.1.

Rechtsleer

Boeken

Barral, V., “Sustainable development and equity in biodiversity conservation” in Morgera, E. en  Razzaque, J. (eds.), Biodiversity and Nature Protection Law, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017,  59-69.

Besson, S. en Pichonnaz, P. (eds.),  Les principes en droit européen - Principles in European Law, Schulthess, 2011, 391 p.

Beyerlin, U. en Marauhn, T., International Environmental Law, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2011, 484 p. 

Beyerlin, U., “Different Types Of Norms In International Environmental Law Policies, Principles, And Rules” in Bodansky, D., Brunnée, J. en Hey, E. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law, Oxford University Press, 2007, 425-448.

Bilderbeek, S., Biodiversity and International Law: The Effectiveness of International Environmental Law, IOS Press, 1992, v + 213 p.

Birnie, P., Boyle, A. en Redgwell, C., International Law & the Environment (third edition), Oxford University Press, 2009, xxxvi + 851 p.

Boer, B., “Land Degradation as a Common Concern of Human Kind”, in Lenzerini, F. en Vrdoljak, A. F. (eds.), International Law for Common Goods: Normative Perspectives on Human Rights, Culture and Nature, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014, 289-307.

Bonafé, B. I. en Palchetti, P., “Relying on general principles in international law” in Brölmann, C. en  Radi, Y. (eds.), Research Handbook on the Theory and Practice of International Lawmaking, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2016, 160-178.

Bossuyt, M. en Wouters, J., Grondlijnen van Internationaal Recht, Intersentia, 2005, xxv + 1086 p.

Boyle, A., “The Rio Convention on Biological Diversity” in Bowman, M. en Redgwell, C. (eds.), International Law and the Conservation of Biological Diversity, Kluwer Law International, 1996, 33-50.

Brölmann, C. en Radi, Y. (eds.),Research Handbook on the Theory and Practice of International Lawmaking, Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, 2016, xvii + 484 p.

Brown Weiss, E., “Intergenerational Equity” in Wolrum, R. (ed.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (V), 2011, 287-294 (geconsulteerd via http://opil.ouplaw.com).

Brunnée, J., “Sources of International Environmental Law: Interactional Law” in Besson, S. en  D’aspremont, J. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook on the Sources of International Law, 2017, 960-986.

Brunnée, J. en Toop, S. J., Legitimacy and Legality in International Law. An Interactional Account, Cambridge University Press, 2010, xviii + 415 p.

Buck, M., Morgera, E. en Tsioumani, E. (eds.), Unraveling the Nagoya Protocol : a commentary on the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit-sharing, Brill, 2014, xxvi + 411 p.

Cameron, J. en O’riordan, T. (eds.), Interpreting the Precautionary Principle, Earthscan, 1994, 315 p.

Carazo, M. P., en Klein, D., “Implications for Public International Law: Initial Considerations” in D. Klein, M. P. Carazo, M. Doelle, J. Bulmer en A. Higham (eds.), The Paris Climate Agreement: Analysis and Commentary, Oxford University Press, 2017, 389-412.

Cheng, B. en Schwarzenberger, G., General principles of law as applied by international courts and tribunals, Stevens, 1953, li + 490 p.

Clapham, A., Brierly’s Law of Nations: an introduction to the role of international law in international relations(seventh edition), Oxford University Press, 2012, li + 518 p.

Cliquet, A., Internationaal en Europees recht inzake biodiversiteit, Academia Press, 2013, xii + 233 p.

Cordonnier-Segger, M-C., “Sustainable development in international law” in H. C. Bugge en C. Voigt (eds.), Sustainable Development in International and National Law, Europa Law Publishing, 2008, 78-202.

Cullet, P., “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities”, in Fitzmaurice, M., Ong, D. M. en Merkouris, P. (eds.), Research Handbook on International Environmental Law, 2010, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar, 161-181.

Cullet, P., Differential Treatment in International Environmental Law, Ashgate, 2003, x + 213 p. 

De Sadeleer, N., Environmental Principles. From Political Slogans to Legal Rules, Oxford University Press, 2002, xlviii + 433 p.

Dinah, S., “Equity” in Bodansky, D., Brunnée, J. en Hey, E.(eds.),The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law, Oxford University Press, 2007, 639-662.

Dupuy, P-M., “Customary Law and General Principles” in Bodansky, D., Brunnée, J. en Hey, E. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law, Oxford University Press, 2007, 449-466.

Dworkin, R., Taking Rights Seriously, Duckworth, 1977, xv + 371 p.

Falloux, F., Tressler S., en Mayrand, K., “The Global Mechanism and UNCD Financing: Constraints and Opportunities”, in Johnson, P-M., Mayrand, K. en Paquin, M. (eds.), Governing Global Desertification: Linking Environmental Degradation, Poverty and Participation, Ashgate Publishing, 2006, 131-144.

Faure, M. en Lefevere, J., “Compliance with Global Environmental Policy: Climate Change and Ozone Layer Cases”, in Axelrod, S. R. en Vandeveer, S. D. (eds.), The Global Environment: Institutions, Law and Policy, CQ Press, 2015, 138-156.

Freestone, D. en Hey, E. (eds.), The Precautionary Principle and International Law. The Challenge of Implementation, Kluwer Law International, 1996, xv + 274 p.

Goeteyn, N. en Maes, F., “De Global Environment Facility (GEF)” in Ryngaert, C. (ed.), De fondsen en programma's van de Verenigde Naties, Acco, 2012, 119-125.

Gourgourinis, A., “CBDR in transnational climate change governance and the WTO” in P. Delimatsis (ed.), Research Handbook on Climate Change and Trade Law, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, 31-48.

Gupta, J. en Sanchez, N., “Elaborating the Common but Differentiated Responsibilities Principle in the WTO” in Cordonnier-Segger, M-C. en Weeramantry C. G. (eds.), Sustainable Development Principles in the Decisions of International Courts and Tribunals: 1992-2012, Taylor & Francis, 2017, 425-440.

Halvorssen, A., Equality Among Unequals in International Environmental Law. Differential Treatment for Developing Countries, Westview Press, 1999, 200 p.

Hamrouni, M., Les Responsabilités Communes mais Différenciées: Contribution a l’Étude de la Structuration d’un Principe Général du Droit International de l’Environnement, Pedone, 2018, viii + 422 p (binnenkort te verschijnen). 

Hey, E., “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities” in Wolfrum, R. (ed.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (II), 2012, 444-448 (geconsulteerd via http://opil.ouplaw.com).

Hollo, E. J., Kulovesi, K. en Mehling , M. (eds.), Climate Change and the Law, Springer, 2012, xxi + 693 p.

Honkonen, T., The Common but Differentiated Responsibility Principle in Multilateral Environmental Agreements: Regulatory and Policy Aspects, Kluwer Law International, 2009, xv + 410 p.

Kellersmann, B., Die Gemeinsame, aber Differenzierte Verantwortlichkeit von Industriestaaten und Entwicklungsländern für den Schutz der Globalen Umwelt, Springer, 2000, xii + 380 p.

Lang, W., “UN-Principles and International Environmental Law” in Frowein, J. A. en Wolfrum, R. (eds.), Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (Volume 3), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1999, 157-172.

Lepard, B.,Customary International Law. A New Theory with Practical Applications, Cambridge University Press, 2010, xx + 419 p. 

Lowe, V., “Sustainable Development and Unsustainable Arguments” in Boyle, A. and Freestone, D. (eds.), International Law and Sustainable Development: Past Achievements and Future Challenges, Oxford University Press, 1999, 19-38.

Maljean-Dubois, S., “The Making of International Law Challenging Environmental Protection” in Kerbrat, Y. en Maljean-Dubois, S. (eds.), The transformation of international environmental law, A. Pedone & Hart, 2011, 25-54.

Matz, N., “Environmental Financing: Function and Coherence of Financial Mechanisms in International Environmental Agreements” in Frowein, J. A. en Wolfrum, R. (eds.), Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law: volume 6, Kluwer Law International, 2002, 473-534.

Pavoni, R. en Piselli, D., “Access to Genetic Resources and and Benefit Sharing” in Morgera, E. en  Razzaque, J. (eds.), Biodiversity and Nature Protection Law, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2017,  237-250.

Perron-Welch, F., “Socioeconomics, Biosafety and Sustainable Development” in Cordonnier-Segger, M-C., Perron-Welch, F. en Frison, C. (eds.), Legal Aspects of Implementing the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, Cambridge University Press, 2013, 147-162.

Rajamani, L., Differential treatment in international environmental law, Oxford University Press, 2006, xx + 281 p.

Redgewell, C., “Formality and Informality in the Dynamic Evolution of International Environmental Law Norms” in Besson, S. en d’Aspremont, J. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook on the Sources of International Law, 2017, 939-959.

Rowlands, I., “Atmosphere and Outer space” in Bodansky, D., Brunnée, J. en Hey, E. (eds.),The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law, Oxford University Press, 2007, 315-336.

Sands, P. en Peel, J., Principles of International Environmental Law, Cambridge University Press, 2018,  lxv + 941 p.

Sands, P., Principles of International Environmental Law, Cambridge University Press, 2003, cxxx + 1116 p. 

Sands, P.,Principles of International Environmental Law I: Frameworks, Standards and Implementation, Manchester University Press, 1994, lxx + 733 p.

Sand, P. H., “Carrots Without Sticks? New Financial Mechanisms for Global Environmental Agreements” in Frowein, J. A.  en Wolfrum, R. (eds.), Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (Volume 3), Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1999,363-389.

Van Hoof, G. J. H.,  Rethinking the Sources of International Law, Kluwer, 1983, xiv + 323 p.

Verschuuren, J., Principles of Environmental Law. The Ideal of Sustainable Development and the Role of Principles of International, European, and National Environmental Law, Nomos, 2003, 165 p.

VilligerM.,Customary International Law and Treaties: a Manual on the Theory and Practice of the Interrelation of Sources, Kluwer Law International, 1997, xxiv + 346 p. 

Voigt, C.,Sustainable Development as a Principle of International Law. Resolving Conflicts between Climate Measures and WTO Law, Martinus Nijhoff, 2009, xxiv + 428 p.

Winter, G., “A Fundament and Two Pillars; the Concept of Sustainable Development 20 Years after the Brundtland Report” in Bugge, H. C., en Voigt, C. (eds.), Sustainable Development in International and National Law, Europa Law Publishing, 2008, 25-48.

Wirth, D. A., “Hazardous Substances and Activities” in Bodansky, D., Brunnee, J. en Hey, E. (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law, Oxford University Press, 2007, 394-424.

Wolfke, K.,Custom in Present International Law, Martinus Nijhoff, 1993, xxi + 192 p.

World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future, Oxford University Press, 1987, 383 p.

Yamineva, Y. en Kulovesi, K., “The New Frame for Climate Finance under the United Nations Framework on Climate Change” in Hollo, E. J., Kulovesi, K. en Mehling, M. (eds.), Climate Change and the Law, Springer, 2012, 191-224.

Yoshida, O.,The International Legal Regime of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer, Kluwer Law International, 2001, xxv + 403 p.

Young, O. R., “Environmental Ethics in International Society” in Coicaud ,J-M. en Warner, D. (eds.), Ethics and International Affairs: Extent and Limits, United Nations University Press, 2001, 161-193.

Tijdschriften

Arbour, J-M., “Normativité du Principe des Responsabilités Communes mais Différenciées”, Les Cahiers de Droit2014, vol. 55, nr. 1, 33-82.

Bartenstein, K., “L’Opérationnalisation du Principe des Responsabilités Communes mais Différenciées Repensée : Plaidoyer pour une Démarche Ancrée dans l’Équité”,Les Cahiers de Droit2014, vol. 55, nr. 1, 113-137.

Bartenstein, K., “De Stockholm à Copenhague: Genèse et Évolution des Responsabilités Communes mais Différenciées dans le Droit International de l’Environnement”, McGill Law Journal2010, vol. 56, nr. 1, 177-228.

Batruch, C., “Hot  Air as  Precedent for  Developing  Countries? Equity  Considerations.”, UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy1999, vol. 17, nr. 1, 45-66.

Beyerlin, U.,  “Bridging the North-South Divide in International Environmental Law”, Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht2006, vol. 66, 259-296.

Biddulph, M. en Newman, D., “A Contextualised Account of General Principles of International Law”, Pace International Law Review2014, vol. 26, nr. 2, 286-344.

Biniaz, S., “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities: Remarks”, American Society International Law Proceedings2002, vol. 96, 359-362.

Bodansky, D., “The Role of the International Court of Justice in Addressing Climate Change: Some Preliminary Reflections”, Arizona State Law Journal2017, vol. 49, 689-712.

Bodansky, D., “The Paris Climate Change Agreement: A New Hope?”, American Journal of International Law 2016, vol. 110, nr. 2, 288-319.

Bodanksy, D., “The Copenhagen Climate Change Conference : A Post-mortem”, American Journal of International Law2010, vol. 104, nr. 2, 230-240.

Bodansky, D., “Customary (and not so Customary) International Environmental Law”, Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies1995, vol. 3, nr. 1, 105-119.

Bodansky, “The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: A Commentary”, Yale Journal of International Law1993, vol. 18, nr. 2, 453-454.

Boisson De Chazournes, L. en Mbengue, M. M., “Mécanismes financiers internationaux - Fonds pour l'environnment mondial (FEM)”, Jurisclasseur Environnement2013, 1-25.

Boyle, A., “Some Reflections on the Relationship of Treaties and Soft Law”, International and Comparative Law Quarterly1999, vol. 48, nr. 4, 901-913.

Bufundo, N. E., “Compliance with the Ozone Treaty: Weak States and the Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility”, American University International Law Review2006, vol. 21, nr. 3, 461-496.

Cullet, P., “Differential Treatment in Environmental Law : Addressing Critiques and Conceptualizing the Next Steps”, Transnational Environmental Law2016, vol. 5, nr. 2, 305-328.

Cullet, P., “Equity and Flexibility in the Climate Change Regime: Conceptual and Practical Issues”, Review of European Community and International Environmental Law1999, vol. 8, nr. 2, 168-179.

Cullet, P., “Differential Treatment  in International  Law: Towards a  New  Paradigm of Inter-state  Relations”, EJIL1999, vol. 10, nr. 3, 549-582.

Deleuil, T., “Le principe des responsabilités communes mais différenciées dans la Convention «POP»”, Les Cahiers de Droit2014, vol. 55, nr. 1, 265–287.

Deleuil, T., “The Common but Differentiated Responsibilities Principle: Changes in Continuity after the Durban Conference of the Parties”, RECIEL2012, vol. 21, nr. 3, 271-281.

Desombre, E., “The Experience of the Montreal Protocol: Particularly Remarkable, and Remarkably Particular”, UCLA Journal of Environmental Law and Policy 2000, vol. 19, nr. 1, 49-82.

Doelle, M., “The Paris Agreement: Historic Breakthrough or High Stakes Experiment”, Climate Law2016, vol. 6, nrs. 1-2, 1-10.

Drumbl, M.,  “Poverty, Wealth, and Obligation in International Environmental Law”, Tulane Law Review2002, vol. 76, nr. 4, 843-960.

Ferreira, P. G., ‘Common But Differentiated Responsibilities’ in the National Courts: Lessons from Urgenda v. The Netherlands, Transnational Environmental Law2016, vol. 5, nr. 2, 329-251.

French, D., “Developing States and International Environmental Law: The Importance of Differentiated Responsibilities”, International and Comparative Law Quarterly2000, vol. 49, nr. 1, 35-60.

Getu, M., “Accommodating the Interests of Developing Countries in the Climate Change Regime: Lessons from the Ozone Layer Regime”, Mizan Law Review2012, vol. 6, nr. 1, 1-44.

Goeteyn, N. en Maes, F., “Compliance Mechanisms in Multilateral Environmental Agreements: An Effective Way to Improve Compliance”, Chinese Journal of International Law2011, vol. 10, nr. 4, 791-826.

Green, B. A., “Lessons from the Montreal Protocol: Guidance for the next International Climate Change Agreement”, Environmental Law2009, vol. 39, nr. 1, 253-284.

Gündling, L., “Compliance Assistance in International Environmental Law: Capacity-Building through Financial and Technology Transfer”, Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht1996, vol. 56, 796-809.

Harris, P. G., “Common But Differentiated Responsibility: The Kyoto Protocol and United States Policy”, N.Y.U. Environmental Law Journal 1999, vol. 7, nr. 1, 27-48.

Hellio, H., “Principe des Responsabilités Communes mais Différenciées et le Contrôle du Non-Respect : une Rencontre Fantasmée », Les Cahiers de Droit2014, vol. 55, nr. 1, 193-220.

Hermitte, M-A. (ed.), “La Convention sur la Diversité Biologique a Quinze Ans », Annuaire Français de Droit International2006, vol. 52, 351-390.

Huang, J., “Climate Justice: Climate Justice and the Paris Agreement”, Journal of Animal and Environmental Law 2017, vol. 9, nr. 1, 23-59.

Huggins, A. en Karim, M. S., “Shifting Traction: Differential Treatment and Substantive and Procedural Regard in the International Climate Change Regime”, Transnational Environmental Law2016, vol. 5, nr. 2, 427-448.

Jolly, S., “Access and Benefit Sharing under Nagoya Protocol and Sustainable Development: A Critical Analysis”, AGORA International Journal of Juridical Sciences2015, nr. 3, 38-45.

Joyner, C., “Common but Differentiated Responsibility: Remarks”, American Society International Law Proceedings2002, vol. 96, 358-359.

Khan, M. R., “Polluter-Pays-Principle: The Cardinal Instrument for Addressing Climate Change”, Laws2014, nr. 4, 638-653.

Kjellen, B., “The Saga of the Convention to Combat Desertification: the Rio/Johannesburg Process and the Global Responsibility for the Drylands”, Review of European Community & International Environmental Law 2013vol.12, nr. 2, 127-132.

Lavallée, S., “Responsabilités Communes mais Différenciées et Protection Internationale de l’Environnement: Une Assistance Financière en Quête de Solidarité”, LesCahiers de Droit2014, vol. 55, nr. 1, 139-192. 

Lavallée, S., “Le Principe des Responsabilités Communes mais Différenciées à Rio, Kyoto et Copenhague: Essai sur la Responsabilité de Protéger le Climat”, Études Internationales2010, vol. 41, nr. 1, 51-78.

Le Bouthillier, Y., “Des Constats et des Questions sur le Principe des Responsabilités Communes mais Différenciées », Les Cahiers de Droit2014, vol. 55, nr. 1, 315-324.

Lee, J., “Rooting the Concept of Common but Differentiated Responsibilities in Established Principles of International Environmental Law”, Vermont Journal of Environmental Law2015, vol. 17, 27-50.

Ling, B., “Developing Countries and Ozone Layer Protection: Issues, Principles and Implications”, Tulane Environmental Law Journal1992, vol. 6, nr. 1, 91-126.

Magraw, D., “Existing Legal Treatment of Developing Countries: Differential, Contextual, and Absolute Norms”, Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy1990, vol. 1, nr. 1, 69-99.

Maguire, R., “The Role of Common but Differentiated Responsibility in the 2020 Climate Regime”, Carbon & Climate Law Review2013, vol. 7, nr. 4, 260-269.

Maljean-Dubois, S., “The Paris Agreement: A New Step in the Gradual Evolution of Differential Treatment in the Climate Regime?”, RECIEL2016, vol. 25, nr. 2, 151-160.

Maljean-Dubois, S. en Sariego, P. M., “Principe des Responsabilités Communes mais Différenciées dans le Régime International du Climat”, Les Cahiers de Droit2014, vol. 55, nr. 1, 83-112.

Matsui, Y., “Some Aspects of the Principle of “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities”, International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics2002, vol. 2, nr. 2, 151–171.

McGraw, D. M., “The CBD – Key Characteristics and Implications for Implementation”, RECIEL2002, vol. 11, nr. 1, 20-22.

McIntyre, O., “The Role of Customary Rules and Principles of International Environmental Law in the Protection of Shared International Freshwater Resources”, Natural Resources Journal2006, vol. 46, nr. 1, 157-210.

Maguire, R., “Incorporating International Environmental Legal Principles into Future Climate”, Carbon & Climate Law Review2012, vol. 6, nr. 2, 101-113.

Morgera, E., “The Need for an International Legal Concept of Fair and Equitable Benefit Sharing”, European Journal of InternationalLaw 2016, volume 27, nr. 2, 353-383.

Morgera, E., “Justice, Equity and Benefit-Sharing under the Nagoya Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity”, The Italian Yearbook of International Law Online 2015, vol. 24, nr. 1, 113-141.

Mossos, E., “The Montreal Protocol and the Difficulty with International Change”, Albany Law Environmental Outlook Journal 2005, vol. 10, nr. 1, 1-32.

Najam, A., “Developing Countries and Global Environmental Governance: From Contestation to Participation to Engagement”, International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 2005, vol. 5, nr. 3, 303–321.

Najam, A., “Dynamics of the Southern Collective: Developing Countries in Desertification Negotiations”, Global Environmental Politics2004, vol. 4, nr. 3, 128-154.

Nanda, A. D., “India’s Environmental Trump Card : How Reducing Black Carbon Through Common But Differentiated Responsibilities Can Curb Climate Change”, Denver Journal of International Law & Policy2011, vol. 39, nr. 3, 523-552.

Parikh, J. en Baruaha, L., “A New Framework for the UNFCCC: Common but Differentiated Responsibilities among Non-Annex I Countries”, Economic & Political Weekly 2012, vol. 46, nr. 45, 67-72.

Patlis, M., “The Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol: A Prototype for Financial Mechanisms in Protecting the Global Environment”, Cornell International Law Journal1992, vol. 25, nr. 1, 181-230.

Pauwelyn, J., “The End of Differential Treatment for Developing Countries? Lessons from the Trade and Climate Change Regimes”, RECIEL 2013, vol. 22, nr. 1, 29-41.

Petersen, N., “Customary Law without Custom? Rules, Principles and the Role of State Practice in International Norm Creation”, American University International Law Review2007, vol. 23, nr. 2, 275-310.

Rahman, M., “A Critical Examination of the Financial Mechanism as adopted in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) from a Developing Country’s Perspective”, The Northern University Journal of Law2010, vol. 1, 70-81.

Rajamani, L., “Ambition and Differentiation in the 2015 Paris Agreement: Interpretative Possibilities and Underlying Politics”, International and Comparative Law Quarterly 2016, vol. 65, nr. 2, 493-514.

Rajamani, L., “Differentiation in the Emerging Climate Regime”, Theoretical Inquiries in Law 2013, vol. 14, nr. 1, 151-172.

Sand, P. H., “International Economic Instruments for Sustainable Development: Sticks, Carrots and Games”, Indian Journal of International Law1996, vol. 36, 1-16.

Scharf, M. P., “Accelerated Formation of Customary International Law”, ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law 2014vol. 20, nr. 2, 305-341.

Scott, G. en Carr, C., “Multilateral Treaties and the Formation of Customary International Law”, Denver Journal of International Law and Policy1996, vol. 25, nr. 1, 71-94.

Stone, C. D., “Common but Differentiated Responsibilities in International Law”, American Journal of International Law2004, vol. 98, nr. 2, 276-301.

Sunstein, C. R., “Of Montreal and Kyoto: A Tale of Two Protocols”, Harvard Environmental Law Review 2007, vol. 31, nr. 1, 1-65.

Van Beckhoven, J. “Public Participation as a General Principle in International Environmental Law: Its Current Status and Real Impact”, National Taiwan University Law Review2016, vol. 11, nr. 2, 219-270.

Vanderheiden, S., “Justice and Climate Finance: Differentiating Responsibility in the Green Climate Fund”, International Spectator2015, vol. 50, nr. 1, 31-45.

Van Trien, L., “Les enjeux juridiques de l'intégration des pays en développement dans le régime climatique post-Kyoto”, Revue québécoise de droit international2010, vol. 23, nr. 1, 31-90.

Voigt, C. en Ferreira, F., “Differentiation in the Paris Agreement”, Climate Law2016, vol. 6, nrs. 1-2, 58-74.

Voigt, C., “The Role of General Principles in International Law and their Relationship to Treaty Law”, Retfaerd2008, vol. 31, nr. 3, 3-25.

Weisslitz, M., “Rethinking the Equitable Principle of Common but Differentiated Responsibility: Differential versus Absolute Norms of Compliance and Contribution in the Global Climate Change Context”, Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy 2002vol. 13, nr. 2, 473-510.

Yamineva, Y., “Climate Finance in the Paris Outcome: Why Do Today What You Can Put Off Till Tomorrow?”, RECIEL2016, vol. 25, nr. 2, 174-185.

Yotova, R., “Challenges in the Identification of the “General Principles of Law Recognized by Civilized Nations”: The Approach of the International Court”, CJCCL2017, vol. 3, nr. 1, 269-325.

Zhang, H., Dai, H., Lai H., en Wang, W.,  “U.S. withdrawal from the Paris Agreement: Reasons, impacts, and China’s response”, Advances in Climate Change Research 2017, vol. 13, nr. 5, 439-447.

Papers

Biniaz, S., “I Beg to Differ: Taking Account of National Circumstances under the Paris Agreement, the ICAO Market-Based Measure, and the Montreal Protocol’s HFC Amendment”, Columbia University - Sabin Center for Climate Change Law, 2017, 18 p., http://columbiaclimatelaw.com

Bodle, R., Donat, L. en Duwe, M., “The Paris Agreement: Analysis, Assessment and Outlook”, Background paper for the workshop “Beyond COP21: what does Paris mean for future climate policy?”2016, 30 p., www.ecologic.eu.

French, D., “International Guidelines and Principles” in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems: Conventions, Treaties and Other Responses to Global Issues (Volume 1)2006, 9 p., www.eolss.net.

Greiber, T. en Moreno, S. P. (eds.), “An Explanatory Guide to the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing”, IUCN Environmental Policy and Law Paper 2012, nr. 83, xviii + 372 p., www.iucn.org.

Joffe, P., Waskow, D., Deangelis, K., Bevins, W. en Dagnet, Y., Equity Lessons from Multilateral Regimes for the New Climate Agreement, World Resources Institute Working Paper2013, 32 p., www.wri.org.

Kallbekken, S., Saelen H. en Underdal, A., “Equity and Spectrum of Mitigation Commitments in the 2015 Agreement”, Nordic Council of Ministers2014, 76 p.

Kanam, A. “United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification: Issues and Challenges”, 2014, E-International Relationswww.e-ir.info

Khalfan, A., “A CISDL Legal Brief. The Principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities: Origins and Scope”, Centre for  International Sustainable  Development  Law (CISDL), 2002,

http://cisdl.org/public/docs/news/brief_common.pdf.

Mbeva, K. L., en Pauw, P., “Self-Differentiation of Countries’ Responsibilities. Addressing Climate Change through Intended Nationally Determined Contributions”, German Development Institute Discussion Paper 2016, nr. 4, 36 p., www.die-gdi.de.

Nakhooda, S., “The effectiveness of climate finance: a review of the Global Environment Facility”, Overseas Development Institute Working Paper 2013, 40 p., www.odi.org.

Pauw, P., Bauer, S., Richerzhagen, C., Brandi, C. en Schmole, H., “Different Perspectives on Differentiated Responsibilities”, German Development Institute Discussion Paper2014, nr. 6, 65 p., www.die-gdi.de

Pisupati, B., Boumal C., Mrema, E. en Kambu, A., “Issues of Compliance: Considerations for the International Regime on Access and Benefit Sharing”, United Nations Environment Programme Publication 2010, 42 p., www.unenvironment.org.

Ranii, S., “Do Common but Differentiated Responsibilities Belong in the Post-2015 SDGs?”, 21 maart 2014, Center on International Cooperation New York Universityhttps://cic.nyu.edu

Persartikels

“Heatwave made more than twice as likely by climate change, scientists find”, The Guardian, 27 juli 2018, www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jul/27/heatwave-made-more-than-twi…

 “Klimaatexpert: ‘Doelstellingen klimaatakkoord Parijs realiseren om nog grotere kosten te vermijden’”, VRT nieuws, 27 juli 2018, https://www.vrt.be/vrtnws/nl/2018/07/27/klimaatexpert-doelstellingen-kl….

“Let the Paris climate deal die. It was never good for anything, anyway”, TheFinancial Post, 18 mei 2018, http://business.financialpost.com/opinion/let-the-paris-climate-deal-di…

“G20 fails to endorse financial transaction tax”, Reuters, 4 november 2011, www.reuters.com/article/g20-tax/g20-fails-to-endorse-financial-transact….

“No 'Pass' for Developing Countries in Next Climate Treaty, Says U.S. Envoy”, TheNew York Times, 9 december 2009, https://archive.nytimes.com/www.nytimes.com/gwire/2009/12/09/09greenwir….

Websites 

www.adaptation-fund.org

http://chm.pops.int

www.greenclimate.fund

www.health.belgium.be

www.multilateralfund.org

www.thegef.org

https://treaties.un.org

www.unenvironment.org

https://unfccc.int

www.imf.org

www.pactenvironment.org

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master in de rechten
Publicatiejaar
2018
Promotor(en)
Prof. Dr. Frank Maes
Kernwoorden