'All frontiers closed, all territories forbidden': the emergence of statelessness on the international legal stage (1918-1961)

Camille Van Peteghem
Deze scriptie gaat over de opkomst van staatloosheid als onderwerp in het internationaal recht in de periode 1918-1961. Na de uiteenzetting van een theoretisch kader voor staatloosheid in het algemeen, wordt in chronologische volgorde zowel de opkomst en ontwikkeling van het internationale probleem van staatloosheid enerzijds en de opkomst en ontwikkeling van de internationale oplossingen voor staatloosheid anderzijds uiteengezet.

Wanneer de wereld verboden terrein wordt: geschiedenis van staatloosheid in het internationaal recht (1918-1961)

Stel dat je van de ene op de andere dag je nationaliteit verliest, samen met alle voordelen die daarmee gepaard gaan. Je kan niet meer werken, trouwen of een erkend kind op de wereld zetten. Ook landsgrenzen oversteken wordt quasi-onmogelijk zonder paspoort. In de nadagen van Wereldoorlog I overkwam het zo’n anderhalf miljoen Russen die na de Russische Revolutie als onwaardig werden beschouwd voor het burgerschap. Daarmee wekten zij voor het eerst internationale aandacht voor het  probleem van ‘staatloosheid’. Vandaag, honderd jaar later, telt onze wereld maar liefst 15 miljoen mensen zonder nationaliteit, waarvoor nog steeds geen behoorlijke hulp bestaat. 

Een nationaliteit: geen evidentie

Velen onder ons ervaren een nationaliteit hebben als iets heel natuurlijks. Dat is het echter niet. Een nationaliteit is een juridische constructie, een label dat wordt toegekend op basis van een heleboel complexe rechtsregels. Zo kan je bv. een nationaliteit verkrijgen op basis van je geboorteplek,  de nationaliteit van je ouders of later in je leven via een procedure die gepaard gaat met een hele reeks voorwaarden.

Als je bij de verkrijging van nationaliteit nog niet door de spreekwoordelijke mazen van het net gevallen bent, zijn er nog talloze manieren waarop je je nationaliteit kan verliezen. Zo denationaliseren sommige landen hun burgers op basis van ontrouw  gedrag, zoals landsverraad, of zelfs omdat ze niet de gewenste huidskleur of politieke voorkeur hebben. Hoe natuurlijk het ook mag voelen om burger van een land te zijn, zo gemakkelijk kan je die nationaliteit ook soms verliezen en ‘staatloos’ worden.

 

Russische vluchtelingen, 1919 (http://theconversation.com/the-nansen-passport-the-innovative-response-to-the-refugee-crisis-that-followed-the-russian-revolution-85487)

Na WOI: staatloosheid op de internationale agenda

Staatlozen tussen hamer en aambeeld

Lange tijd vormden staatlozen geen groot probleem binnen de internationale gemeenschap. Dit veranderde echter drastisch in de nasleep van de twee wereldoorlogen, die uiteindelijk leidden tot het huidige internationale stelsel voor staatlozen.

Hoewel nationaliteitsregels niet altijd een even grote rol hebben gespeeld, bereikte hun belang een hoogtepunt in de periode na WOI. Volgens het nationale en internationale recht kon je toen enkel rechten hebben indien je een welbepaalde nationaliteit had. Bovendien konden staatlozen de vaak zware omstandigheden moeilijk ontvluchten, aangezien hiervoor steeds vaker een nationaal paspoort werd geëist.

Tegelijkertijd bedeelden staten zichzelf een ongelimiteerde macht toe om nationaliteiten toe te kennen en af te nemen. Onder invloed van het toenemend nationalisme na WOI, veranderden nationaliteitswetten dan ook in discriminerende instrumenten om de bevolking samen te stellen volgens een etnisch en politiek ideaalbeeld. Zo werden naast de Russische denationalisaties, ook duizenden joden de Duitse nationaliteit ontnomen.

 

Beperkte internationale oplossingen

De ongeziene omvang van het staatloosheidsprobleem wekte de aandacht van de internationale gemeenschap. Staten waren echter nauwelijks bereid de macht over hun (discriminerende) nationaliteitswetten in te perken. Zo focuste de Haagse Conventie van 1930 voornamelijk op technische oorzaken van staatloosheid en liet het de grootste bron van problemen, de discriminerende nationaliteitsregels, links liggen. De internationale gemeenschap slaagde er wel in om de gevolgen van staatloosheid te milderen. Zo kregen bepaalde groepen staatlozen, zoals voormalige Russen of Duitsers, beperkte rechten en konden ze landsgrenzen overschrijden met een zogenaamd ‘Nansen paspoort’, genoemd naar Dr. Nansen, de toenmalige internationale verantwoordelijke voor staatlozen.  

Nansenpaspoort (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nansen_passport#/media/File:Nansenpassport.jpg)

Na WOII: mensenrechten als sputterende motor voor verandering?  

Mensenrechten en nationaliteit

De wreedheden van WOII leidden tot de opkomst van internationaal erkende mensenrechten. Volgens de theorie van mensenrechten hoefde een persoon niet langer over een nationaliteit te beschikken om de meest fundamentele rechten te genieten. In de praktijk was een nationaliteit echter nog steeds belangrijk om effectief van je rechten te kunnen genieten. Mensenrechten moeten tenslotte gewaarborgd worden door een staat.

Gezien de dramatische denationalisaties van het interbellum, werd na WOII ook een specifiek mensenrecht op nationaliteit ingevoerd. Dit mensenrecht beperkte staten in hun voordien ongelimiteerde macht over hun nationaliteitswetten. Het hield echter geen absolute verplichting in voor staten om hun nationaliteit toe te kennen. Nationaliteitsregelingen dienden, althans in theorie, voortaan een afweging te maken tussen het recht van een staat om de identiteit van haar bevolking te bepalen en het recht van een individu op een nationaliteit.

De ondertekening van de Universele Verklaring voor de Rechten van de Mens, 1948 (http://www.scientologyreligion.org.tw/blog/sleeping-giant-awakening-the-universal-declaration-of-human-rights.html)

Denationalisaties en vluchtelingenstromen verbonden aan WOII zorgden voor een nieuwe stijging in het aantal staatlozen. In theorie was hun positie dan wel verbeterd, maar in praktijk bleken zij nog steeds kwetsbaar omdat het abstracte mensenrecht op nationaliteit nog omgezet diende te worden naar concrete akkoorden tussen staten.

Ruimere internationale oplossingen

Deze akkoorden kwamen er in de vorm van twee conventies. Enerzijds beoogde de Conventie van 1961 voor de reductie van staatloosheid de oorzaken van staatloosheid te bestrijden. Onder invloed van het toenemend mensenrechtelijk denken werden deze keer niet alleen de technische valkuilen, maar ook de discriminerende nationaliteitsregels aangepakt. Anderzijds kwam de internationale gemeenschap tot een duurzamer akkoord voor de bescherming van staatlozen via welbepaalde rechten en documentatie in het Verdrag van 1954 betreffende de status van staatlozen. Terwijl men na WOI enkel welbepaalde groepen wist te beschermen, bood deze Conventie een universelere bescherming tegen de gevolgen van staatloosheid.

Conclusie: een onmogelijke oplossing?

Staatlozen hebben dus al een heel parcours doorlopen op internationaal niveau. De grote aantallen kwetsbare staatlozen in het kielzog van WOI plaatste de problematiek op de agenda van de internationale gemeenschap. Deze gemeenschap was echter slechts bereid om beperkte maatregelen te nemen. Na WOII bracht het nieuwe mensenrechtenstelsel een verminderde kwetsbaarheid en verhoogde bescherming teweeg, althans in theorie. In de praktijk blijkt echter dat het gecreëerde stelsel nog steeds geen duurzame oplossingen biedt. Des te meer omdat veel staten uiteindelijk weigerden zich te onderwerpen aan de conventies. Het gevolg is dat er vandaag nog steeds 15 miljoen mensen zijn zonder nationale thuis.

Naar de toekomst toe kunnen we alleen maar hopen dat Dr. Nansen gelijk had toen hij zei: ‘wanneer iets moeilijk was, nam het tijd in beslag. Wanneer iets onmogelijk was, nam het gewoon meer tijd in beslag, dat is alles.’

De Rohingya: een bijzonder kwetsbare groep van staatlozen (http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-09-24/why-are-the-rohingya-stateless/8978966).

 

Bibliografie
    1. I. Conventions

Treaty of Peace signed at Saint-Germain-en Laye, Allied and Associated Powers - Austria. Sept. 10, 1919, American Journal of International Law Suppl. 14, 1 (1921).

Treaty of Peace signed at Trianon, Allied and Associated Powers - Hungary, June 4, 1920. American Journal of International Law Suppl. 15, 1 (1921).

Treaty of Peace, signed at Riga, Poland-Ukraine-Russia, March 18, 1921, available at http://www.forost.ungarisches-institut.de/pdf/19210318-1.pdf (accessed May 27, 2018).

 

Protocol Relating to a Certain Case of Statelessness, Apr. 12, 1930, 179 L.N.T.S. 115.

 

Special Protocol Concerning Statelessness, Apr. 12, 1930, available at http://www.refworld.org/docid /3ae6b36f1f.html (accessed May 27, 2018).

 

Convention on Certain Questions Relating to the Conflict of Nationality Law, Apr. 13, 1930, 179 L.N.T.S. 89.

 

Convention Relating to the International Status of Refugees, Oct. 28, 1933, 159 L.N.T.S 201.

 

Convention on Nationality, Dec. 26, 1933, 28 American Journal of International Law Suppl. 63 (1934).

 

Convention on the Nationality of Women, Dec. 26, 1933, 28 American Journal of International Law Suppl. 61 (1934).

 

Convention Concerning the Status of Refugees Coming from Germany, with Annex, Feb. 10, 1938, 192 L.N.T.S. 59.

 

Additional Protocol to the Provisional Arrangement and to the Convention, signed at Geneva on July 4th, 1936, and February 10th, 1938, respectively, Concerning the Status of Refugees Coming from Germany, Sept. 14, 1939, 197 L.N.T.S. 142.

 

Treaty Concerning the Transcarpathian Ukraine, Czechoslovak Republic – USSR, June 29, 1945, available at http://www.forost.ungarisches-institut.de/pdf/19450629-1.pdf (accessed May 27, 2018).

 

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, July 28, 1951, 189 U.N.T.S. 137.

 

Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, Sept. 28, 1954, 360 U.N.T.S. 117.

 

Convention on the Nationality of Married Women, Jan. 29, 1957, available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b3708.html (accessed May 27 2018).

 

Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, Aug. 30, 1961, 989 U.N.T.S. 175.

 

Convention 118 Concerning Equality of Treatment of Nationals and Non-nationals in Social Security, June 28, 1962, available at  http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_IL… (accessed May 27, 2018).

 

Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, Jan. 31, 1967, 606 U.N.T.S. 267.

 

American Convention on Human Rights, Nov. 22, 1969, available at http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b36510.html (accessed 27 May, 2018).

 

Protocol 1 Annexed to the Universal Copyright Convention, July 24, 1971, available at http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.phpURL_ID=17446&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECT… (accessed May 27, 2018).

 

Vienna Convention on Succession of States in Respect of Treaties, Aug. 23, 1978, 1946 U.N.T.S. 3.

 

African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, June 1, 1981, available at https://au.int/en/treaties/african-charter-human-and-peoples-rights (accessed May 27, 2018).

 

African Union Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, July 1, 1990, available at https://au.int/en/treaties/african-charter-rights-and-welfare-child (May 27, 2018).

 

European Convention on Nationality, Nov. 6, 1997, ETS. 166. 

 

Covenant of the Rights of the Child in Islam, June 28-30, 2005, available at
OIC/9-IGGE/HRI/2004/Rep.Final (accessed May 27, 2018).

 

Council of Europe Convention on the Avoidance of Statelessness in Relation to State Succession, March 15, 2006, CETS 200.

 

    1. II. Cases

 

Nationality Decrees Issued in Tunis and Morocco on Nov. 8th, 1921, Advisory Opinion, (PCIJ 7 Feb. 1923).

 

Dickson Car Wheel Company (U.S.A.) v. United Mexican States (General Claims Commission, United States and Mexico July 1931).

 

Nottebohm (Liechtenstein vs. Guatemala) (ICJ 6 April 1955).

 

    1. III. Legal documents
      1. I. Legal documents under the League of Nations

 

Conference on the Question of the Russian Refugees,  Resolutions adopted by the Conference on August 24th, 1921, 30 L.N.O.J. 899 (1921).

 

Arrangement with regard to the Issue of Certificates of Identity to Russian Refugees, July 5, 1922, 30 L.N.T.S. 238 (1922).

 

Plan for the Issue of a Certificate of Identity to Armenian Refugees, Sep. 28, 1923, L.N.O.J., 969 (1924).

 

Extension to Other Analogous Categories of Refugees of the Measures Taken to Assist Russian and Armenian Refugees. Resolution Adopted by the Assembly during its Seventh Ordinary Session, 8 L.N.O.J. 155 (1927).

 

Arrangement Relating to the Issue of Identity Certificates to Russian and Armenian Refugees, Supplementing and Amending the Previous Arrangements dated July 5, 1922 and May 31, 1924, May 12, 1926, 89 L.N.T.S. 48 (1929).

 

Arrangement Relating to the Legal Status of Russian and Armenian Refugees, June 30, 1928, 89 L.N.T.S. 55 (1929).

 

Arrangement Concerning the Extension to Other Categories of Refugees of Certain Measures Taken in Favour of Russian and Armenian Refugees, June 30, 1928, 89 L.N.T.S. 65 (1929).

 

Final Act for the Conference of Codification of International Law Held at The Hague in March-April 1930, 24 American Journal of International Law Suppl. 169 (1930).

 

Plan for the issue of a Certificate of Identity to Refugees from the Saar, July 20, 1935, L.N.O.J. 1681 (1935).

 

Provisional Arrangement Concerning the Status of Refugees Coming from Germany and Annex, July 4, 1936, 171 L.N.T.S. 77 (1936-1937).

 

      1. II. Legal Documents under the UN
        1. Conferences

 

Final Act of the U.N. Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.2/108 (Jul. 25, 1951).

 

Final Act of the U.N. Conference on the Status of Stateless Persons, 1960 U.N.T.S. 117 (Sept. 28, 1954).

 

U.N. Conference on the Elimination or Reduction of Future Statelessness, Resolution adopted by its 14th Plenary Meeting on 18 April 1959, A/CONF.9/L.77 (Apr. 18, 1959).

 

Final Act of the U.N. Conference on the Elimination or Reduction of Future Statelessness, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.9/14 (Aug. 29, 1961).

 

        1. ECOSOC Resolutions

 

ECOSOC Res. 11(II), U.N. Doc. E/RES/11(II) (June 21, 1946).

 

ECOSOC Res. 116 D (VI), U.N. Doc. E/RES/116(VI) (March 2, 1948).

 

ECOSOC Res. 242 C (IX), U.N. Doc. E/RES/242(IX) (Aug. 1, 1949).

 

ECOSOC Res. 248 B (IX), U.N. Doc. E/RES/248(IX) (Aug. 8, 1949).

 

ECOSOC Res. 319 B II, III (XI), U.N. Doc. E/RES/319(XI) (Aug. 11, 1950).

 

ECOSOC Res. 504 (XVI), U.N. Doc. E/RES/504(XVI) (July 23, 1953).

 

ECOSOC Res. 526 A (XVII), U.N. Doc. E/RES/526(XVII) (Apr. 25, 1954).

 

ECOSOC Res. 547 (XVIII), U.N. Doc. E/RES/547(XVIII) (Aug. 15, 1954).

 

ECOSOC Res. 587 (XX), U.N. Doc. E/RES/587(XX) (Aug. 3, 1955).

 

        1. General Assembly resolutions

 

G.A. Res. 217 A (III), U.N. Doc. A/RES/217(III) (Dec. 10, 1948) (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

 

G.A. Res. 429 (V), U.N. Doc. A/RES/429(V) (Dec. 14, 1950).

 

G.A. Res. 629 (VII), U.N. Doc. A/RES/629(VII) (Nov. 6, 1952).

 

G.A. Res. 896 (IX), U.N. Doc. A/RES/896(IX) (Dec. 4, 1954).

 

G.A. Res. 1040 (XI), U.N. Doc. A/RES/1040(XI) (Jan. 29, 1957).

 

 

    1. IV. Reports and others
      1. I. Reports under the League of Nations

 

Legal Position of the Russian refugees. Memorandum by André Mandelstam with an Introductory Note by the Legal Section of the Secretatiat, 16 August 1921, League of Nations Doc. C.R.R.3 (1921).

 

Russian refugees. General Report on the Work Accomplished up to March 15, 1922 by Dr. Fridtjof Nansen, High Commissioner of the League, League of Nations Doc. C.124M.74 (1922).

 

Fifth Assembly of the League of Nations, Report to the Fifth Committee on Refugee Questions, League of Nations Doc. A. V/6/1924 (1924).

 

Conference on Russian and Armenian Refugee Questions, Report by the High Commissioner and Report by the Belgian Representative presented to the Council, League of Nations Doc. A.29 1926 VIII C/327 (1926). 

 

Report to the Council of the League of Nations on the Questions which Appear Ripe for International Regulation. Adopted by the Committee at its Thrid Session, Committee of Experts, March-April, 1927, 22 American Journal of International Law, Special Suppl. on the Codification of International Law 4 (1928).

 

Resolutions and Recommendation Adopted by the Assembly, September 27, 1927, 22 American Journal of International Law, Special Suppl. on the Codification of International Law 231 (1928).

 

Nationality, Text with Comment, 23 American Journal of International Law, Spec. Suppl. on Codification of International Law 25 (1929).

 

Russian, Armenian, Assyrian, Assyro-Chaldean and Turkish Refugees. Report of the Advisory Commission to the High Commissioner for Refugees, submitted to the Council on June 12th, 1929, 7 L.N.O.J. 1078 (1929).

 

Bases of Discussion Drawn up for the Conference by the Preparatory Committee, Nationality, League of Nations Doc. C.73.M.38.1929.V (1930).

 

League of Nations Codification Conference, Report of the First Committee (Nationality), 24 American Journal of International Law Suppl. 215 (1930).

 

First Report Submitted to the Council by the Preparatory Committee for the Codification Conference, League of Nations Doc. C.73.M.38.1929.V (1930).

 

Report by the Secretary-General on the Future Organisation of Refugee Work, League of Nations Doc. 1930.XIII.2 (1930).

 

Second Report Submitted to the Council by the Preparatory Committee for the Codification Conference, League of Nations Doc. C.73.M.38.1929.V,2 (1930).

 

Acts of the Conference for the Codification of International Law Held at The Hague from March 13th to April 12th, 1930, Meetings of the Committees, Vol. II, Minutes of the First Committee (Nationality), League of Nations Doc. C.351(a).M.145(a).1930.V (1930).

 

Report of the Inter-Governmental Advisory Commission for Refugees on the Work of its Fifth Session and Communication from the International Nansen Office for Refugees, May 18, 1933, League of Nations Doc. C.266M.136 (1933).

 

Refugees coming from Germany. Report submitted to the Nineteenth Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the League of Nations by Sir Neill Malcolm, High Commissioner, Aug. 22nd, 1938, League of Nations Doc.  A.25 1938. XII (1938).

 

Report of the Inter-Governmental Advisory Commission for Refguees on the Work of its Seventh Session, March 29, 1935, League of Nations Doc. C.137M.71, 1935. XII (1935).

 

Report of the Governing Body of The Nansen International Office, Aug. 29, 1935, League of Nations Doc. A.22. 1935, XII (1935).

 

Refugees Coming from Germany. Report Submitted to the Nineteenth Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the League of Nations by Sir Neill Malcolm, High Commissioner, August 22, 1938, League of Nations Doc. A.25 1938. XII, 2 (1938).

 

      1. II. Reports under the UN
        1. Reports under the ILC

 

UN Report of the International Law Commission Covering the Work of its Second Session, June 5-July 29, 1950, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/34 (1950).

 

UN Report of the International Law Commission Covering the Work of its Third Session, May 16-July 27, 1951, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/48 (1951).

 

Special Rapporteur on Nationality, Including Statelessness, Report on Nationality, Including Statelessness, ILC, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/50 (Feb 21, 1952) (By Mr. Manley. O. Hudson).

 

UN Report of the International Law Commission Covering the Work of its Fourth Session, June 4-Aug. 8, 1952, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/59 (1952). 

 

Special Rapporteur on Nationality, Including Statelessness, Report on the Elimination or Reduction of Statelessness, ILC, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/64 (March 30, 1953) (by Mr. Roberto Córdova).

 

International Law Commission Expert, Nationality, Including Statelessness – National Legislation Concerning Grounds for the Deprivation of Nationality – Memorandum, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/66 (Apr. 6, 1953) (by Mr. Ivan S. Kerno).

 

UN Report of the International Law Commission Covering the Work of its Fifth Session, June 1-Aug. 14, 1953, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/76 (1953).

 

Special Rapporteur on Nationality, Including Statelessness, Second Report, ILC, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/75 (Aug. 8, 1953) (by Mr. Roberto Córdova).

 

Special Rapporteur on Nationality, Including Statelessness, Third Report, ILC, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/81 (March 11, 1954) (by Mr. Roberto Córdova).

 

Report of the International Law Commission Covering the Work of its Sixth Session, June 3-July 8, 1954, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/88 (1954).

 

Comments by Governments on the Revised Draft Convention on the Elimination of Future Statelessness and the Revised Draft Convention on the Reduction of Future Statelessness Prepared by the International Law Commission at its Sixth Session, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.9/5 (Feb. 24, 1959).

 

Addendum to Comments by Governments on the revised Draft Convention on the Elimination of Future Statelessness and the revised Draft Convention on the Reduction of Future Statelessness, prepared by the International Law Commission at its Sixth Session, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.9/5/Add.1 (March 12, 1959).

 

History of the Two Draft Conventions, One Dealing with the Elimination of Future Statelessness and the Other with the Reduction of Future Statelessness, Prepared by the International Law Commission, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.9/6 (March 25, 1959).

 

        1. Ad Hoc Committee

 

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Statelessness and Related Problems, Jan. 16 - Feb. 16, 1950, U.N. Doc. E/1618/E/AC.32/5 (Feb. 17, 1950).

 

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Refugees and Stateless Persons, 2nd session, Aug. 14 – 25, 1950, U.N. Doc. E/1850/E/AC.32/8 (Aug. 25, 1950).

 

        1. U.N. Secretary-General Reports

 

U.N. Secretary-General, A Study of Statelessness, U.N. Doc. E/1112 (Aug., 1949).

 

U.N. Secretary-General, Draft Protocol Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, Memorandum, U.N. Doc. A/1913 (Oct. 15, 1951).

 

U.N. Secretary-General, The Problem of Statelessness – Consolidated Report, U.N. Doc. A/CN.4/56 (May 26, 1952).

 

U.N. Secretary-General, Memorandum of the Secretary-General on the Draft Protocol of the Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, U.N. Doc. E/CONF.17/3 (Aug. 6, 1954).

 

U.N. Secretary-General, Nationality of Married Women: Report Submitted by the Secretary General, U.N. Doc. E/CN.6/254 (April 28, 1955).

 

U.N. Secretary-General, Note, U.N. Doc. A/2944 (Sept. 15, 1955).

 

U.N. Secretary-General, Note with Annex Containing Observations by Governments on Deprivation of Nationality, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.9/10 (June 9, 1961).

 

        1. Discussions

 

G.A., 10th Session, 3rd Committee, 662nd Meeeting, U.N. Doc. A/C.3/SR.662 (Nov. 16, 1955).

 

G.A., 10th Session, 3rd Committee, 663rd Meeting, U.N. Doc. A/C.3/SR.663 (Nov. 17, 1955).

 

G.A., 10th Session, 3rd Committee, 664th Meeting, U.N. Doc. A/C.3/SR.664 (Nov. 17, 1955).

 

G.A., 10th Session, 3rd Committee, 665th Meeting, U.N. Doc. A/C.3/SR.665 (Nov. 18, 1955).

 

G.A., 10th Session, 3rd Committee, 667th Meeting, U.N. Doc. A/C.3/SR.667 (Nov. 21, 1955).

 

G.A., 11th Session, 647th Plenary Meeting, U.N. Doc. A/PV.647 (Jan. 19, 1957)

 

Conference on the Elimination or Reduction of Future Statelessness, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.9/C.1/SR 1-20 (April. 24, 1961).

 

Conference on the Elimination or Reduction of Future Statelessness, U.N. Doc A/CONF.9/SR 1-25 (Apr. 24, 1961).

 

        1. Other

 

UN Documents on the Development and Codification of International Law, 41 American Journal of International Law Suppl. 29 (1947).

 

Report of the Committee on the Progressive Development of International Law and its Codification on the Methods for Encouraging the Progressive Development of International Law and its Eventual Codification, U.N. Doc. A/AC.10/51 (June 17, 1947).

 

Progressive Development of International Law and its Codification: Report of the Committee on the Progressive Development of International Law and its Codification, Report of the Sixth Committee, U.N. Doc. A/504 (Nov. 20, 1947).

 

    1. V. Literature

 

UNHCR, The world’s stateless people’ in Refugees Magazine, nr 147, issue 3 (2007): n.p.

 

Adjami, Mirna, and Julia Harrington. ‘The Scope and Content of Article 15 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights’. Refugee Survey Quarterly 27, no. 3 (1 January 2008): 93–109.

 

Albarazi, Zahra, and Laura Van Waas. ‘Statelessness and Displacement’. Norwegian Refugee Council and Tilburg University, 2016.

 

Baluarte, David C. ‘The Risk of Statelessness: Reasserting a Rule for the Protection of the Right to Nationality’. Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal 19 (2017): 47–94.

 

Batchelor, Carol A. ‘Stateless Persons: Some Gaps in International Protection’. International Journal of Refugee Law 7 (1995): 232–59.

 

———. ‘Statelessness and the Problem of Resolving Nationality Status’. International Journal of Refugee Law 10, no. 1–2 (1998): 156–182.

 

Beck, Robert J. ‘Britain and the 1933 Refugee Convention: National or State Sovereignty’. International Journal of Refugee Law 11 (1999): 597–624.

 

Ben-Nun, Gilad. ‘From Ad Hoc to Universal: The International Refugee Regime from Fragmentation to Unity 1922-1954’. Refugee Survey Quarterly 34, no. 2 (2015): 23–44.

 

Bentwich, Norman. ‘The League of Nations and Refugees’. British Year Book of International Law 16 (1935): 114–29.

 

Bisschop, W.R. ‘Nationality in International Law’. American Journal of International Law, 1943, 320–25.

 

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Onderzoeksmaster rechten
Publicatiejaar
2018
Promotor(en)
Professor R. Lesaffer
Kernwoorden