The Newari Vernacular Revi[v/s]ed: Seismic building cultures in a context of transition in Bungamati & Khokana, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

Evelien Roelands Katrien Valcke Yanne Gillekens Sophie Van Hulle
Op 25 april 2015 werd Nepal getroffen door een hevige aardbeving met duizenden dodelijke slachtoffers tot gevolg. Een groot deel van de gebouwde omgeving stortte in en twee jaar later bevindt de wederopbouw zich nog steeds pas in de beginfase. Door authentieke tradities te combineren met nieuwe bouwmethoden probeert deze thesis bij te dragen aan de wederopbouw in aardbevingsgevoelige gebieden.

Nepal, twee jaar na de verwoestende aardbeving

Weggevaagd door een aardbeving                 
25 april 2015, een dag die in ons geheugen gegrift staat. Op deze dag werd Nepal getroffen door een aardbeving van 7.8 op de schaal van Richter. Een groot deel van de overlevenden zag hun huis instorten en ook het erfgoed kreeg het zwaar te verduren. Hele dorpen kwamen zonder drinkbaar water en elektriciteit te zitten of werden door aardverschuivingen afgesloten van de stad en hulporganisaties. Twee jaar later bevindt de wederopbouw zich nog steeds in de beginfase.

verwoeste straatbeeld in Bungamati

Inwoners ontruimen plein in Khokana

Lessen uit het verleden
Doordat aardbevingen frequent voorkomen in Nepal, heeft er zich over de eeuwen heen een traditionele bouwcultuur ontwikkeld die hier tegen bestand was. Een gebrekkige kennisoverdracht en de opkomst van moderne bouwtechnieken zorgden er echter voor dat deze technieken nog zelden correct werd toegepast. Hierdoor raakte de traditionele bouwcultuur zwaar beschadigd tijdens de aardbeving en ontstond de mythe dat moderne betonnen gebouwen veiliger zijn. De gevolgen van een instortende betonplaat zijn echter veel groter dan die van falend metselwerk.

De dorpen zelf bestaan uit een netwerk aan open ruimtes, binnenplaatsen en publieke pleinen, die met elkaar verbonden zijn door straten en gangen. Het creëren van een netwerk van open ruimtes vindt zijn oorsprong in het verzekeren van verschillende vluchtroutes bij een aardbeving. Hierbij is ook de link met religie niet weg te denken: tijdens festivals trekt men door de straten met wagens die goden afbeelden. Dit is tevens een manier voor de lokale bevolking om de vluchtroutes te leren kennen en vrij te houden.

Intussen breidt de hoofdstad echter snel uit met moderne gebouwen, wat de druk op de bewaarde traditionele Newari- dorpen – de Newars zijn de oorspronkelijke bevolking van de Kathmandu-vallei – verhoogt. Door terug te grijpen naar de traditionele bouwcultuur en bouwtechnische details en tezelfdertijd rekening te houden met betaalbare materialen die voorhanden zijn in de Kathmandu-vallei, kan de wederopbouw op een realistische en duurzame manier gebeuren.

straatbeeld Khokana opgebouwd uit een combinatie van moderne en traditionele gebouwen

religieuze doortocht door de straten
Water: vroeger en nu

De Newari dorpen liggen traditioneel op een heuvel om zich te beschermen tegen overstromingen en om het vruchtbaar landbouwgebied in de vallei te maximaliseren. De beschikbaarheid van water in deze dorpen vormde hierdoor een grote uitdaging. Daarom werd een ingenieus systeem uitgedacht waarbij verschillende elementen samenwerken. Een hoofdkanaal, de Rajkulo of koninklijk kanaal, bracht water uit de rivier in het zuiden van de Kathmandu-vallei naar het paleis in het noorden. Onderweg liepen verschillende aftakkingen naar de kleinere dorpen, waar ze uitmondden in verschillende vijvers die dienst deden als grote waterreservoirs. De vijvers zorgden ervoor dat het grondwaterniveau op een voldoende hoog peil bleef. Hierdoor kon men op andere plaatsen via waterputten en spouts - trappen die worden uitgegraven tot in het grondwaterniveau - het water onttrekken en gebruiken.

Het watersysteem in Nepal is echter gaandeweg aan het moderniseren, waardoor het traditionele systeem sterk verwaarloosd raakt. Naast het feit dat het moderne systeem al onvoldoende water voorzag, zorgde de aardbeving in 2015 er bovendien voor dat het zwaar beschadigd raakte. Vooral in de traditionele dorpen werden de inwoners plots terug afhankelijk van het traditionele systeem, dat door onvoldoende onderhoud, gebrek aan goede rioleringen en een toenemende afvalproblematiek sterk vervuild was.

Het herzien en heropleven van dit traditioneel watersysteem kan niet alleen tijdens rampen een veilige back-up vormen, maar kan ook het moderne systeem dat momenteel ontoereikend is, aanvullen.

centrale vijver Bungamati als deel van het traditionele watersysteemVrouwen halen water bij de moderne watertank in Bungamati

De bijdrage van het eindwerk aan de wederopbouw
In 2015 en 2016 gingen reeds twee teams van de KU Leuven naar twee traditionele dorpjes, Bungamati en Khokana, acht kilometer ten zuiden van Kathmandu. Het resultaat hiervan werd gebundeld in een actieplan voor de wederopbouw van Bungamati, dat goedgekeurd werd door het ministerie. Dit eindwerk is een verder verdieping en uitbreiding van hun onderzoek en ziet de wederopbouw als een kans om de traditionele bouwcultuur van de Newars te doen heropleven en deze tegelijkertijd te herzien, zodat ook hedendaagse behoeften beantwoord kunnen worden. 

Een sorteerbank voor het afval
Doorheen de hele Kathmandu-vallei nemen afvalbergen langs de kant van de weg grote stukken land in. De afvalophaaldienst functioneert onvoldoende en bewoners weten niet waar ze met hun afval moeten blijven. Dit heeft drastische gevolgen voor het landgebruik en het milieu. Bijkomend staan de shelters, oorspronkelijk bedoeld als tijdelijke huisvesting vlak na de aardbeving, nog steeds overal verspreid in en rond de dorpskernen ondanks het feit dat deze als maar meer verlaten worden. Zonder verdere functie blijven zij kostbaar land innemen.

Een sorteercentrum, op een strategische locatie tussen de twee dorpen, biedt een antwoord op deze problematiek. Niet alleen afval, maar ook bouwmaterialen kunnen hier worden binnengebracht in ruil voor krediet. Het systeem van afvalbanken is reeds op verschillende plaatsen in Azië succesvol gebleken. Bovendien is er op deze manier een vaste plek waar het puin na een aardbeving kan verzameld worden. Dit vergemakkelijkt het ontruimen van evacuatieroutes die zeer belangrijk zijn tijdens mogelijke naschokken. Het biedt ook een plek aan waar mensen goedkoop tweedehands bouwmateriaal kunnen kopen voor de heropbouw van hun huis.

Opstapeling afval aan de kant van het dorp

 

Voorbeeldfunctie
Door verschillende bouwprojecten op strategische locaties in de twee dorpen te ontwerpen, wordt een voorbeeld aangereikt voor de wederopbouw in de hele Kathmandu-vallei. Het gehele ontwerp streeft naar een samenwerking tussen de traditionele waarden en de moderne noden. De ontwikkeling van de Kathmandu-vallei blijft mogelijk, dankzij een ontwerp dat ruimte laat voor latere aanpassingen en uitbreiding. Het dringende waterprobleem wordt opgelost door een saneringsplan waarbij afvalwater op een natuurlijke manier wordt gezuiverd tot irrigatiewater voor de omliggende rijstvelden, het maximaliseren van regenwateropvang en de heropleving van traditionele waterelementen in publieke ruimten. Bovendien wordt de traditionele, aardbevingsresistente bouwcultuur nieuw leven ingeblazen. Daarnaast kan er in de toekomst sneller gereageerd worden na een natuurramp zonder de tradities en waarden van de lokale bevolking in het gedrang te brengen.

Ontwerpvoorstel wederopbouw Khokana

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Thakur, V. C. (2006). Reassessment of earthquake hazard in the Himalaya and implications from the 2004 Sumatra- Andaman earthquake. Current Science, 90(8), 1070–1072. 

Thapa, R. B., & Murayama, Y. (2010). Drivers of urban growth in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal: Examining the efficacy of the analytic hierarchy process. Applied Geography, 30(1), 70–83. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j. apgeog.2009.10.002 

Thapa, R. B., & Murayama, Y. (2011). Urban growth modeling of Kathmandu metropolitan region, Nepal. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 35(1), 25–34. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2010.07.005 

Thapa, R. B., Murayama, Y., & Ale, S. (2008). City profile Kathmandu. Cities, 25(1), 45–57. Retrieved from https://doi. org/10.1016/j.cities.2007.10.001 

Toffin, G. (1991). Man and his house in the Himalayas. Vajra Books. Kathmandu: Sterling Publishers Private. 

Tomoda, M. (2016). Survey of Historic Settlement. Tokyo. 

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UNESCO. (1996). Khokana, the vernacular village and its mustard-oils seed industrial heritage. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/844/ 

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van Wijnbergen, E. (2016). Exploration and analysis of low-cost seismic retrofit measures to improve box-action for traditional brick masonry houses in Nepal. TU Delft. 

von Fürer-Haimendorf, C. (1957). The Inter-Relations of Castes and Ethnic Groups in Nepal. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 20(1), 243–253. 

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Webb, D., & Bajracharya, P. (2016). Bungamati 2015 Socio-economic Household Survey Report

Wells, M. P. (2011). Socio-economic and political aspects of biodiversity conservation in Nepal. 

Zhao, B. (2016). April 2015 Nepal earthquake: observations and reflections. Natural Hazards, 80(2), 1405–1410. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-2001-6

Interviews

Bastola S. (2016, October 10). Personal interview. 

Dangol B. (2016, October 9). Personal interview. 

Joshi P. (2016, August 29). Personal interview. 

Michiels, T. (2017, April 20). Personal interview. 

Puri R. (2016, September 26). Personal interview. 

Rudrayanee guthi (2016, October 10). Personal interview. 

Shrestha D.S. (2016, October 6). Personal interview. 

Singh S. (2016, August 21). Personal interview. 

Tiwari S.R. (2016, October 10). Personal interview. 

Tuladhar A. (2016, September 1). Personal interview.

 

Image credits

p. 1 Cover page adapted from: Amaya Marin, V., Amir, S., d’Auria V., De Meulder B., De Nijs A., Dens S., Manna, A. K., & Matton, I. (2015). Studio Kathmandu volume 1: revitalising Bungamati: an action plan. Design investigations for a post earthquake reconstruction process in Bungamati, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. KU Leuven

Framing the Kathmandu Va l l e y

p. 26 Underlaying map: Google (2017). DigitalGlobe 

Adapted from:[untitled illustration]. NEC Travels and Tours Ltd. Retrieved from https://www.nectravels. com/nepal/geographical_information.htm 

p. 27 Underlaying map: Esri (2017) ArcGIS® Retrieved May 31, 2017 from Arcgis.com 

p. 28 (up) Underlaying map: Esri (2017) ArcGIS® Retrieved May 31, 2017 from Arcgis.com 

(down) Shilpakar S. (2015). Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://sujanshilpakar.files.wordpress.com/2014/08/ picture1.jpg 

p. 29 Timeline: Thakur, V. C. (2006). Reassessment of earthquake hazard in the Himalaya and implications from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Current Science, 90(8), 1070–1072. 

Image: Sommer M. (2015). Nepal - Kathmandu - Durbar Square - Gaddi Baithak – 47. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from www.flickr.com/photos/asienman/21762613718 

p. 30 Wessels C. (1924). Early Jesuit travellers in Central Asia 1603-1721. New Dehli. j. Jetley. p. XVII 

p. 31 (up) Toffin, G. (1984), Société et religion chez les Néwar du Népal. Paris: Centre Regional de Publications du CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de Meudon-Bellevue) 

(down) Adapted from: Amaya Marin, V., Amir, S., Manna, A. K., & Matton, I. (2015). Studio Kathmandu volume 2: landscape urbanism explorations for the southern fringe of Kathmandu Metropolitan are, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. KU Leuven. p. 22 

p. 33 Adapted from: Searle M., Avouac J-P., Elliott J., Dyck B. (2016). Ductile shearing to brittle thrusting along the Nepal Himalaya: Linking Miocene channel flow and critical wedge tectonics to 25th April 2015 Gorkha earthquake. Tectonophysics. p.2 

p. 34 Adapted from: Toffin, G. (1984), Société et religion chez les Néwar du Népal. Paris: Centre Regional de Publications du CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique de Meudon-Bellevue) 

p. 35 Gutschow N., Kölver B., Shresthacary I. (1987) Newar towns and buildings: An illustrated dictionary Newari-English. Sankt Augustin: VGH-Wissenschaftsverslag. 

p. 36-37 Underlaying map: Esri (2017) ArcGIS® Retrieved May 31, 2017 from Arcgis.com 

p. 38 Bruneel, W., Canales, C., Hoek, R., Legrand, A., Valassa, G., & Allaert, K. (2016). Studio Kathmandu volume 3: Town Extensions in Karyabinayak Municipality. Urban design investigatons into a hazardous territory experiencing fast growth, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. KU Leuven. p.30

Topographical foundations & landscape logics

Water management in development

p. 54 Adapted from: Amaya Marin, V., Amir, S., Manna, A. K., & Matton, I. (2015). Studio Kathmandu volume 2: landscape urbanism explorations for the southern fringe of Kathmandu Metropolitan are, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. KU Leuven. p. 25 

p. 55 (up) Danish Architect Students. (2015). Bungmati 1968, A Survey by Danish Architect Students. p.25 

(down) Kathmandu Valley Development Authority (KVDA). (2015). Kathmandu Valley 20 years strategic masterplan (2015-2035) for Kathmandu Valley. p. 9 

p. 57 Underlaying map: Esri (2017) ArcGIS® Retrieved May 31, 2017 from Arcgis.com 

Adapted from: Aryal M. (2005, November 18). Reviving Patan’s royal canal. Nepali Times, Issue 273. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://nepalitimes.com/news.php?id=9129#.WFqUgbbhBE6 

p. 59 (down) Adapted from: UNEP-IETC et al. (1998). Sourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in some Asian countries. Osaka: United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.unep.or… techpublications/TechPub-8e/&gws_rd=cr&ei=VjgtWaKkEcLkaLTJrfAJ 

p. 62 Calderwood I. (2015, August 31). Shocking pictures show children looking on as teams of men struggle to rip apart live goats in barbaric Nepalese festival. Mailonline. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://www.dailymail. co.uk/news/article-3217371/Shocking-pictures-children-looking-teams-men-struggle-rip-apart-live-goats-barbaric-Nepalese-festival.html#ixzz4igOh7XSn 

p. 67 Underlaying map: Esri (2017) ArcGIS® Retrieved May 31, 2017 from Arcgis.com 

Adapted from: Shrestha, M. (2014). Evaluation of Water Supply and Demand under Climate Change Scenarios in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Asian Institute of Technology. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.4343.3848

Specificities of the urban tissue

p. 73 Dalbéra J.-P. (2013). Le temple de Rato Machhendranath (Bungamati). Retrieved from May 31, 2017. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/8629058200/in/album-7215763318974… 

p. 77 Underlaying map: Esri (2017) ArcGIS® Retrieved May 31, 2017 from Arcgis.com 

Adapted from: (population) Brinkhoff T. City Population. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://www.citypopulation.de (Karyabinayak municipality) Local Governance and Community Development Programme (LGCDP). GIS 61 new Municipality Map. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://lgcdp.gov.np/gis_61mun?page=1 

p. 79 Gellner, D. N. (1986). LANGUAGE, CASTE, RELIGION AND TERRITORY: Newar identity ancient and modern. European Journal of Sociology, 27(1), 102–148. 

p. 101 Tomoda, M. (2016). Survey of Historic Settlement. Tokyo. p.12 

p. 102 Joshi A. (2008). God of Rain-Rato Machhindranath Jatra. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://www. everestuncensored.org/05-12-2008/ 

p. 113 Amir S. (2015). Independent study: Revitalising Bungamati. Fieldwork on settlements & typologies. KU Leuven. p.16

 

The current relevance of earthquake resilient Newari typologies

p. 122    Amaya Marin, V., Amir, S., Manna, A. K., & Matton, I. (2015). Studio Kathmandu volume 2: landscape urbanism explorations for the southern fringe of Kathmandu Metropolitan are, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. KU Leuven. p. 40-41

p. 125    Bruneel, W., Canales, C., Hoek, R., Legrand, A., Valassa, G., & Allaert, K. (2016). Studio Kathmandu volume 3: Town Extensions in Karyabinayak Municipality. Urban design investigatons into a hazardous territory experiencing fast growth, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. KU Leuven. p.30

p. 126    (up) Danish Architect Students. (2015). Bungmati 1968, A Survey by Danish Architect Students.  p.9

    (down) Danish Architect Students. (2015). Bungmati 1968, A Survey by Danish Architect Students.  p.10

p. 156    Murty, C. V. R. (2005). Earthquake Tips: Learning Eartquake Design and Construction. National Information Center of Earthquake Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, New Delhi. p.9

p. 161    Government of Nepal, Ministery of Physical Planning and Works, Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (1994, June). NEPAL NATIONAL BUILDING CODE NBC 204:1994 Guidelines for earthquake resistant building construction: earthen building (EB). Nepal National Building Code. Retrieved from http://www.dudbc.gov.np/uploads/default/files/bde5d6c61cd5476a11073f40c…

p. 163    de Stoppelaar A.O. , Oosterhof A.J., Can Düzgün B.C. , Spelt C.J., van Wijnbergen E.C.M. (2015). Shock Safe Nepal. Delft. University of Technology. p.43

p. 165    Government of Nepal, Minstery of Urban Development & Shelter Cluster Nepal (2015). 10 Key messages - A visual index.

p. 167    Underlaying map: Esri (2017) ArcGIS® Retrieved May 31, 2017 from Arcgis.com

    Adapted from: Amaya Marin, V., Amir, S., Manna, A. K., & Matton, I. (2015). Studio Kathmandu volume 2: landscape urbanism explorations for the southern fringe of Kathmandu Metropolitan are, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. KU Leuven. p. 228-229

p. 171    Ranjitkar, R. K. (2006). Heritage Homewoner’s Preservation Manual: Kathmandu Valley World Heritage Site, Nepal. Bangkok, Kathmandu: UNESCO Bangkok, UNESCO Kathmandu. p.85-90

p. 173-177    Government of Nepal, Ministery of Physical Planning and Works, Department of Urban Development and Building Construction (1994, June). NEPAL NATIONAL BUILDING CODE NBC 204:1994 Guidelines for earthquake resistant building construction: earthen building (EB). Nepal National Building Code. Retrieved from http://www.dudbc.gov.np/uploads/default/files/bde5d6c61cd5476a11073f40c…

    Government of Nepal, Minstery of Urban Development & Shelter Cluster Nepal (2015). 10 Key messages - A visual index.

p. 179    Toffin, G. (1991). Man and his house in the Himalayas. Vajra Books. Kathmandu: Sterling Publishers Private. p.98

 

Strategy for the twin villages

p. 242-243    Sidiq N. (2016). Kashmir’s rural landscape destroyed by thriving brick kilns. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://kashmirobserver.net/2016/local-news/kashmirs-rural-landscape-de…

    Kristine L. (2017). Inferno – Nepal. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://www.lisakristine.com/portfolio-items/inferno-nepal/?portfolioCa….

    Saliy O. (2016). Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://your-photography.com/blog/abandoned-factory-kathmandu/

 

Bungamati: rethinking water cycles

p. 256    Gutschow, N. (2011). Architecture of the Newars: A History of Building Typologies and Details in Nepal vol. 1. Chicago: Serindia Publications.  p. 266

p. 259    Tuladhar A. (2017). Facebookpost on Awakened Bungamati page. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://www.facebook.com/AwakenedBungamati/photos/a.1734036420207942.10…

p. 266    KUBOTA Corporation (1996-2017). Ductile iron pipes. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://www.kubota-global.net/us/products/ironpipe/

p. 269    Biddlestone, J., & Cooper, D. (2009). Reed Bed Systems. Ingenia, (39), 18–23.

p. 270    Maruli A. (2012). Lampu biogas untuk rumah tangga di Kampung Areng, Cibodas Lembang. Antara News. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from www.biru.or.id/en/index.php/news/2012/1/31/105/farmers-in-lembang-relie…

p. 274    Cress Water Solutions. [Untitled illustration]. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from  http://www.reedbeds.co.uk/page/do-i-have-to-apply-to-the-environment-ag…

p. 276    Thinglink. (2015) The invasion of the Common Reed. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://www.thinglink.com/scene/582208227190505474

    Kontur J. (2008) Cattails. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeff_kontur/2773635433/

p. 277    Centre for Alternative Technology. [Untitled illustration]. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://info.cat.org.uk/questions/water-and-sewage/do-you-have-further-t…

p. 287    Amaya Marin, V., Amir, S., Manna, A. K., & Matton, I. (2015). Studio Kathmandu volume 2: landscape urbanism explorations for the southern fringe of Kathmandu Metropolitan are, Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. KU Leuven. p. 131

p. 304    from left to right:

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    Virtually 9-5 (2012). Eleocharis Acicularis - Hair Grass. Retrieved May 31 from http://harrogateaquatic.com/product.php?id_product=813

    Ševcík J. (2013). Potamogeton crispus L. – Curled Pondweed. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://www.biolib.cz/en/image/id223205/

    Gold S. (2009). Cyperus corymbosus. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://www.wildflowers.co.il/hebrew/picture.asp?ID=11287

    G.M. Cunningham, WE Mulham, PL Milthorpe and J H Leigh (1981) Plants of Western New South Wales. p. 159-160. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/scotia/key/Plants%20and%20Fungi%20…

    Stüber K. (2003). Syperaceae Cyperus diffusus. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://caliban.mpiz-koeln.mpg.de/mavica/high/5000/04744.html

    Fischer C. (2007).  Hydrocharis morsus-ranae. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrocharis#

    Thinglink. (2015) The invasion of the Common Reed. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://www.thinglink.com/scene/582208227190505474

    Eden Botanicals. (2017). Lotus Absolute, White. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://www.edenbotanicals.com/lotus-absolute-white.html

    Jacobs S. (2015) Monochoria australasica. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://idtools.org/id/appw/factsheet.php?name=13026

    Nejezchleba M. (2017) Sparganium emersum Rehmann – Unbranched Bur-reed. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from http://www.biolib.cz/en/image/id36347/

    Kontur J. (2008) Cattails. Retrieved May 31, 2017 from https://www.flickr.com/photos/jeff_kontur/2773635433/

 

 

 

 

Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master in de ingenieurswetenschappen: architectuur
Publicatiejaar
2017
Promotor
Bruno De Meulder, Viviana d'Auria
Kernwoorden