The aftermath of a dark past. Forensic archaeology and memorialization of the 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi.

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Deze masterthesis behandelt twee aspecten van het transitionele justitie- en verzoeningsproces: enerzijds de forensische archeologie, haar technieken, toepassing en belang voor internationale strafhoven zoals het ICTY en het ICTR, en anderzijds de inspanningen om gebeurtenissen te memorialiseren, en hun impact op de gemeenschap. Beide onderdelen worden benaderd vanuit een algemeen oogpunt via een theoretisch kader dat telkens toegepast kan worden op de gekozen case study, namelijk de genocide tegen de Tutsi in Rwanda uit 1994.

Dood en begraven? De rol van menselijke resten na de Rwandese genocide.

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DOOD EN BEGRAVEN? DE ROL VAN MENSELIJKE RESTEN NA DE RWANDESE GENOCIDE.

Het is intussen 22 jaar geleden dat beelden opdoken van de hallucinante gebeurtenissen in Rwanda, die later de naam ‘Genocide tegen de Tutsi van 1994’ zouden krijgen. Op een termijn van een honderdtal dagen werden bijna een miljoen Tutsi’s en gematigde Hutu’s afgeslacht door extremistische Hutu-milities. Per dag werden dus gemiddeld 10.000 mannen, vrouwen en kinderen systematisch en handmatig vermoord met elk voorwerp dat men kon vinden: machetes, tuingereedschap, autokrikken, kruisbeelden. 10.000. Dat is zoveel als het aantal slachtoffers die vielen op 11 september en de Srebrenica-massamoord samen, per dag. De gevolgen waren desastreus: Rwanda, het prachtige land van duizend heuvels, lag volledig in puin. Veel genocidaires waren op de vlucht geslagen naar de uitpuilende vluchtelingenkampen van buurland Congo (toen nog Zaïre). De Tutsi’s die het geweld hadden overleefd, keerden terug naar wat over was van hun huizen, waar vaak bleek dat hun familieleden werden uitgemoord.

Langzaamaan werd duidelijk dat het land was getransformeerd in één grote crime scene. In veel gevallen lagen de doden nog steeds zoals ze gevallen waren, en waren geen pogingen ondernomen om hen te begraven. Zo hadden grote groepen Tutsi’s hun toevlucht gezocht in kerken, scholen en ziekenhuizen, waar ze een makkelijk doelwit vormden voor de moordende milities. In de kerken van Nyamata, Ntarama en Nyarubuye vielen respectievelijk 25.000, 5.000 en 20.000 slachtoffers, wiens lichamen maanden- tot zelfs jarenlang onaangeroerd bleven liggen.

Betekent de beëindiging van zoveel levens dan dat dat de rol van de doden is uitgespeeld? Zeker niet. Ze zijn enerzijds stille getuigen, die als bewijsmateriaal kunnen dienen om de schuldigen te straffen. In 1994 werd het Internationaal Rwandatribunaal (ICTR) opgericht, met als doel de architecten en voornaamste aanzetters van de genocide te berechten. Om bewijs te verzamelen kreeg de ngo Physicians for Human Rights de opdracht in 1995 om twee forensische opgravingen van massagraven uit te voeren in Kibuye en Kigali. Dit zijn de enige wetenschappelijke opgravingen die in Rwanda hebben plaatsgevonden. Nochtans worden er tot op de dag van vandaag nog steeds met de regelmaat van de klok menselijke resten gevonden, die daarna bijgezet worden in grotere collectieve gedenkplaatsen.

Anderzijds zijn de lichamen de inzet van een strijd om de herinnering, waar verschillende actoren bij betrokken zijn. Familieleden en vrienden willen graag een waardige laatste rustplaats voor hun overleden dierbare. Vlak na de genocide werden dan ook heel wat slachtoffers traditioneel begraven op familiegrond of op het dorpskerkhof. Het aantal doden maakte dit echter financieel en logistiek onmogelijk. Daarbij was identificatie van de resten meestal een onbegonnen werk.  Een meer gecoördineerde overheidsaanpak leidde tot de (her)begraving van tienduizenden slachtoffers in collectieve begraafplaatsen, waarvan de zeven grootste symbolische nationale gedenkplaatsen werden (Kigali Memorial Centre, Nyamata, Ntarama, Bisesero, Nyarubuye, Murambi en Nyanza Kicuciro).

Een opvallend aspect van deze nationale gedenkplaatsen is dat er menselijke resten tentoongesteld worden. Vlak na de genocide werd er zeer veel belang gehecht aan het bewijzen wat voor misdaden er tegen de Tutsi hadden plaatsgevonden. Aanvankelijk werden de lichamen in situ gelaten, maar na verloop van tijd besloot men om de beenderen te wassen en sorteren in grote hopen. Een deel ervan werd begraven in massagraven, enkele honderden of duizenden lichamen werden keurig gesorteerd en in lange rijen op schappen tentoongesteld. Een duidelijker argument tegen de ontkenning van de genocide is er niet.

Een zeer tekenend voorbeeld is de school te Murambi, waar ongeveer 50.000 slachtoffers vielen, die door de genocidaires met bulldozers in grote massagraven werden gedumpt. Toen de graven weer werden opengemaakt, werd een deel van de lichamen in hun dodelijke positie gepreserveerd door een soort kalkoplossing te gebruiken. Een duizendtal lichamen wordt zo aan het publiek getoond. Het beoogde schokeffect mist zijn doel niet, wanneer de bezoeker kamer na kamer met lichamen van mannen, vrouwen en kinderen bezoekt. Gruwel was zelden zo tastbaar als hier.

De Rwandese overheid, die sterk gedomineerd wordt door Tutsi’s onder leiding van boegbeeld president Paul Kagame, heeft de menselijke resten in feite gebruikt om een eigen politiek narratief te creëren, waar Tutsi’s de slachtofferrol hebben gekregen en Hutu’s – logischerwijze – de daders zijn. De Hutu-gemeenschap voelt zich door deze sterk Tutsi-gedomineerde herdenking van de genocide geviseerd en gestigmatiseerd. Zij pleiten voor een herdenking van de gematigde Hutu’s die tijdens de genocide werden omgebracht en voor de doodgezwegen Hutu-slachtoffers die vielen tijdens verscheidene oorlogsmisdaden van de troepen van Kagame bij de verovering van Rwanda. Dit alles heeft als het ware geleid tot een stille strijd om de herinnering van de doden van de genocide.

Een onverwachte partij in dit conflict zijn de talrijke toeristen die Rwanda jaarlijks bezoeken. Vaak wordt hun perceptie van het land beïnvloed door twee iconische films: ‘Gorilla’s in the mist’ en ‘Hotel Rwanda’. Naast het populaire gorillatoerisme is er dan ook een ‘genocidetoerisme’ ontstaan. Zo blijkt dat – met de uitzondering van de jaarlijkse herdenkingsweek in april - de meeste bezoekers van de gedenkplaatsen geen Rwandezen zijn, maar buitenlandse toeristen, die een of meer gedenkplaatsen bezoeken als onderdeel van hun bezoek aan Rwanda.

Studies van dit soort ‘dark tourism’, waarbij de dood in al haar aspecten centraal staat, maken een indeling van toeristische attracties volgens verschillende tinten, van zeer licht naar zeer donker.

Het spreekt voor zich dat de gedenkplaatsen van Rwanda, met hun talloze beenderen, achtergebleven bloedsporen en gruwelijke verhalen zich aan de donkerste kant van het spectrum bevinden. Dit maakt hen dan ook een populaire toeristische bestemming.

Deze sensatiezucht naar het morbide staat in schril contrast met het idee van een waardige laatste rustplaats voor de slachtoffers. Het is dan ook merkbaar dat de Rwandese overheid de laatste jaren meer en meer afstapt van de strategie om menselijke resten tentoon te stellen aan het publiek om zich te legitimeren. Het discours is minder grafisch, geweld staat minder centraal en er is meer aandacht voor het genezingsproces van de getraumatiseerde bevolking. Rwanda lijkt stilaan klaar om de slachtoffers van de genocide in vrede te laten rusten.  

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Bucyensenge, J.P. (2012d). First Lady opens Cyanika Genocide memorial. The New Times 24/06/2012. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2012-06-24/89787/

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Jaberg, S. (2013). Scars of the Genocide remain open. The New Times 07/04/2013. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2013-04-07/91046/

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Rwembeho, S. (2010b). Dilapidated memorial sites to be rehabilitated. The New Times 24/03/2010. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2010-03-24/18049/

Rwembeho, S. (2010c). Genocide Memorial site set for a major facelift. The New Times 07/04/2010. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2010-04-07/18513/

Rwembeho, S. (2010d). Rukumberi to host Ngoma’s official memorial site. The New Times 09/04/2010. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2010-04-09/18573/

Rwembeho, S. (2010e). Ngoma residents re-bury recently discovered bodies. The New Times 12/04/2010. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2010-04-12/18667/

Rwembeho, S. (2010f). Reburial plans of Musha genocide victims in chaos. The New Times 12/05/2010. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2010-05-12/19705/

Rwembeho, S. (2011). Construction of Musha Genocide site complete. The New Times 29/03/2011. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2011-03-29/29710/

Rwembeho, S. (2012a). 18 years on, burial of Genocide victims continues. The New Times 13/04/2012. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2012-04-13/51638/

Rwembeho, S. (2012b). Nyarubuye Memorial to Cost Rwf 3 Billion. The New Times 28/04/2012. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2012-04-28/52223/

Rwembeho, S. (2013). Nyarubuye Genocide Memorial site gets face-lift. The New Times 12/04/2013. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2013-04-12/64790/

Rwembeho, S. (2014a). Genocide victims reburied 20 years later. The New Times 13/04/2014. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2014-04-13/92033/

Rwembeho, S. (2014b). Remains of 500 Genocide victims yet to be retrieved from Rwinkwavu mines. The New Times 14/04/2014.

Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2014-04-14/74590/

Rwembeho, S. (2014c). Remains of 8,000 Genocide victims buried in Kayonza. The New Times 26/05/2014. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2014-05-26/75574/

Rwembeho, S. (2015a). Districts urged to do more to renovate memorial sites. The New Times 07/04/2015. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2015-04-07/187649/

Rwembeho, S. (2015b). Remains of Genocide victims get decent burial. The New Times 18/04/2015. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2015-04-18/187961/

Rwembeho, S. (2015c). Over 100 Genocide victims reburied. The New Times 21/04/2015. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2015-04-21/188049/

Rwembeho, S. (2015d). Nyarubuye genocide memorial site to get Rwf 350m facelift. The New Times 21/12/2015.

Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2015-10-21/193684/

Rwembeho, S. (2016a). Remains of 200 Genocide victims in Kayonza District still missing. The New Times 15/04/2016.

Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2016-04-15/198971/

Rwembeho, S. (2016b). Remains of 130 Genocide victims get decent burial. The New Times 20/04/2016. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2016-04-20/199121/

Rwirahira, R. (2016). CNLG urges lobbying for memorial sites to gain world heritage status. The New Times 27/01/2016.

Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2016-01-27/196485/

Sabiiti, D. (2008a). Genocide remains get decent burial in Nyarusange. The New Times 28/01/2008. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2008-01-28/44488/

Sabiiti, D. (2008b). Remains of 30,000 genocide victims laid to rest. The New Times 11/05/2008. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2008-05-11/3643/

Sabiiti, D. (2008c). Catholic Church queried on Kabgayi killings. The New Times 06/08/2008. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2008-08-06/40330/

Sabiiti, D. (2009a). Religious leaders denounce Genocide ideology. The New Times 14/04/2009. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2009-04-14/8040/

Sabiiti, D. (2009b). Genocide victims re-buried. The New Times 13/05/2009. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2009-05-13/43668/

Sabiiti, D. (2009c). Genocide survivors upset over memorial day. The New Times 20/07/2009. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2009-07-20/9348/

Sabiiti, D. (2010). Ibuka boycotts Kabgayi Commemoration. The New Times 31/05/2010. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2010-05-31/20355/

Sabiiti, D. (2011a). Genocide victims remains laid to rest in Muhanga. The New Times 04/06/2011. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2011-06-04/31790/

Sabiiti, D. (2011b). Over 23,000 Genocide victims in Ngororero reburied. The New Times 18/07/2011. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2011-07-18/33106/

Simpson, C. (2000). A bishop tried over genocide. The Tablet. The International Catholic News Weekly, 24/06/2000, 4.

Retrieved from http://archive.thetablet.co.uk/article/24th-june-2000/4/a-bishop-tried-…

Ssenyonga, A.B. (2007). Teachers mind: Fight Genocide ideology in schools. The New Times 18/12/2007. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2007-12-18/99822/

Ssenyonga, A.B. (2013). Come visit Rwanda, not just for the fun. The New Times 13/04/2013. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2013-04-13/91064/

Stanislas (2013). Don’t make it mandatory for kids to visit the memorials. The New Times 15/04/2013. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2013-04-15/64891/

Tashoa, A. (2014a). Kimironko residents renovate Genocide memorial site. The New Times 16/04/2014. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2014-04-16/74632/

Tashoa, A. (2014b). Genocide memorial sites in sorry state, says report. The New Times 29/04/2014. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2014-04-29/74929/

The Nation (1997). Rwanda genocide victims to be given proper burials. The Nation 09/08/1997, A10.

Retrieved from

https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=437anddat=19970809andid=sKouAAAA…

The New Times (2008a). Genocide memorial sites live to tell story. The New Times 17/06/2008. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2008-06-17/4195/

The New Times (2008b). What brings you to Rwanda? The New Times 12/07/2008. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2008-07-12/86918/

The New Times (2008c). Nyanza memorial site – A symbol failures of the international community. The New Times 30/12/2008.

Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2008-12-30/6472/

The New Times (2009a). Time for Christians to reflect on Genocide against the Tutsi. The New Times 13/04/2009.

Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2009-04-13/8018/

The New Times (2009b). Face to face with Genocide at Murambi. The New Times 15/07/2009. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2009-07-15/46966/

The New Times (2010). The imperative of conserving genocide evidence. The New Times 07/02/2010. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2010-02-07/81007/

The New Times (2011a). Commemorating the Genocide against the Tutsi. Upholding the Truth: Preserving our Dignity. The New Times 09/04/2011. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2011-04-09/83856/

The New Times (2011b). Genocide memory should be kept alive and protected. The New Times 13/04/2011. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2011-04-13/30180/

The New Times (2011c). Evidence of the Genocide must be preserved. The New Times 29/05/2011. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2011-05-29/31602/

The New Times (2016). Editorial: Preserving the memory of Genocide victims a duty for all. The New Times 04/04/2016.

Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2016-04-04/198634/

The New York Times (1994). Unicef Plans to Help Rwanda to Bury Dead. The New York Times, 10/12/1994.

Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1994/12/10/world/unicef-plans-to-help-rwanda-to-…

The Rwandan (2015). Exclusion of Hutu massacre and human remains in the genocide memorials of Rwanda: may a cause of the refusal of Rwanda memorial’s sites into the world culture heritage (UNESCO). The Rwandan 23/06/2015. Retrieved from http://www.therwandan.com/blog/exclusion-of-hutu-massacre-and-human-rem…

Tindiwensi, M. (2007). 2063 Genocide remains for decent burial. The New Times 09/12/2007. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2007-12-09/39589/

Tindiwensi, M. (2008a). MPs meet head teachers over genocide ideology in schools. The New Times 29/01/2008.

Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2008-01-29/39717/

Tindiwensi, M. (2008b). Butare asks residents to reveal location of more Genocide remains. The New Times 18/07/2008.

Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2008-07-18/48060/

Turikumwe, N.L. (2013). Schools to adopt mandatory visit of memorial sites. The New Times 15/04/2013. Retrieved from http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/article/2013-04-15/64862/

Legal literature (laws and jurisdiction)

Adede, A.O. (1996). Statement of the Registrar of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, 29/04/1996.

Retrieved from http://unictr.unmict.org/en/news/statement-registrar-international-crim…

Farage, H. (1999). Redacted transcript of 15/03/1999. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda Case No ICTR 95-3-T. The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against George Rutaganda.

Retrieved from

http://jrad.unmict.org/webdrawer/webdrawer.dll/webdrawer/search/recands…

Government of Rwanda. (2009). Law N°56/2008 of 10/09/2008. Law governing memorial sites and cemeteries of victims of the genocide against the Tutsi in Rwanda. Official Gazette of the Republic of Rwanda 48, (12bis 23). 23 March2009, 62-77.

Retrieved from http://docplayer.net/2022197-Official-gazette-of-the-republic-of-rwanda…

ICTR (2001). Kayishema et al. (ICTR-95-1).

Retrieved from http://unictr.unmict.org/en/cases/ictr-95-1

ICTR (2003). Rutaganda, Georges (ICTR-96-3).

Retrieved from http://unictr.unmict.org/en/cases/ictr-96-3

ICTR (2006). Gacumbitsi, Sylvestre (ICTR-01-64).

Retrieved from http://unictr.unmict.org/en/cases/ictr-01-64

ICTR. (2009). The Prosecutor v. Tharcisse Renzaho, Case no. ICTR-97-31-T, Judgment and sentence, 14/07/2009.

Retrieved from

 http://www.haguejusticeportal.net/Docs/ICTR/Renzaho_Judgement_EN.pdf

Statute of Rome (1998). Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

Retrieved from http://legal.un.org/icc/statute/99_corr/cstatute.htm.

United Nations. (1951). Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide. Adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on 09 December 1948. United Nations Treaty Series No.1021, 278-322.

Retrieved from https://treaties.un.org/doc/publication/unts/volume%2078/volume-78-i-10…

Reports

Cox, M., and Bell, L.S. (2003). An initial assessment of the condition and requirements for conservation of human remains at six genocide memorial sites in Rwanda. Inforce Foundation Report: Series 1.

EAAF (1992). Croatia. The Hospital at Vukovar.

Retrieved from http://eaaf.typepad.com/ar_1992/Croatia_AR_1992.pdf

EAAF (1997). Former Yugoslavia from. Investigations conducted under the auspices of the Internaional Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia from involving the exhumation of a mass grave near the Croatian city of Vukovar and the exhumation of mass graves near Brcko, Bosnia. EAAF Biannual Report 1996-1997, 83-89.

Retrieved from http://eaaf.typepad.com/pdf/1996_1997/08FormerYugoslavia from96_97.pdf

EAAF (1998). Bosnia. A mission to assist with the field and laboratory work connected with the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia from’s investigations into human rights violations in Bosnia. EAAF Annual Report 1998, 16-18.

Retrieved from http://eaaf.typepad.com/pdf/1998/02Bosnia1998.pdf

EAAF (1999). A mission to assist with field and laboratory work for the International Criminal Tribunal to the former Yugoslavia from in its investigation into human rights violations in Bosnia. EAAF Annual Report 1999, 22-30.

Retrieved from http://eaaf.typepad.com/pdf/1999/04Bosnia1999.pdf

Federation Internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme (FIDH). (1993). Rwanda : Violations massives et systématiques des droits de l’Homme depuis le 1er octobre 1990.

Retrieved from https://www.fidh.org/fr/regions/afrique/rwanda/14463-rwanda-violations-…

Haglund, W.D. (1997). Forensic Investigations at the Amgar garage and nearby Vicinity: Kigali, Rwanda. Physicians for Human Rights.

Haglund, W.D., and Kirschner, R. (1997). Investigations at Kibuye Roman Catholic Church: Kibuye, Rwanda. Physicians for Human Rights.

Human Rights Watch (1993). Iraqi Kurdistan: The destruction of Koreme during the Anfal Campaign.

Retrieved from https://www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1992/iraqkor/

Human Rights Watch. (2006). The Rwandan genocide: How it was prepared. A Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper.

Retrieved from

https://www.hrw.org/legacy/backgrounder/africa/rwanda0406/rwanda0406.pdf

Ibarra, M. (1996). Preliminary report on the possibilities for conserving the Murambi (Gikongoro) site. Archives of the CMGM, 07/01/1996.

Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa (IRIN). (2001). Government puts genocide victims at 1.07 million. Report 19/12/2001K

Retrieved from http://www.irinnews.org/news/2001/12/19/government-puts-genocide-victim…

Kirschner, R. (1997). Investigations at Kibuye Roman Catholic Church: Kibuye, Rwanda. Physicians for Human Rights.

Mazowiecki T. (1993). Situation of human rights in the territory of the Former Yugoslavia from. Report on the situation of human rights in the territory of the Former Yugoslavia from, submitted by Mr. Tadeusz Mazowiecki, Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, pursuant to Commission resolution 1992/S-1/1 of 14 August 1992. Commission of Human Rights Session 49, Agenda item 27. E/CN.4/199350, 10/02/1993.

Retrieved from

https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G93/106/07/PDF/G9310607.p…

MINICOM. (2009). Rwanda Tourism Policy.

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http://www.minicom.gov.rw/fileadmin/minicom_publications/policies/Touri…

Oosterlinck, C., Van Schendel, D., Huon, J., Sompayrac, J., and Chavanis, O. (2012). Rapport d'expertise: destruction en vol du Falcon 50 Kigali (Rwanda). Paris: Cour d'appel de Paris, Tribunal de Grand Instance.

Retrieved from

http://www.mdrwi.org/rapports%20et%20doc/documents/rapport%20poux.pdf

Physicians for Human Rights (1997). New PHR Report: Investigations in Eastern Congo and Western Rwanda.

Retrieved from http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/library/reports/congo-rwanda-invest…

Reichs, K. (1999). Report on the Forensic Investigations at the Amgar garage and nearby Vicinity, Kigali Rwanda by William Haglund. (Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D).

SNV Rwanda , RSM-Erasmus University. (2008). Branding Rwanda as tourism destination : what image do Rwandan tourism stakeholders want to promote abroad?

Retrieved from http://www.bibalex.org/Search4Dev/document/283974

UNOHCHR (1995). Unité spéciale d'enquête (SIU). Rapport final sur l'enquête sur le génocide. Kigali.

Retrieved from

http://www.rwandadocumentsproject.net/gsdl/collect/mil1docs/archives/HA…

World Bank. (2005). Private Solutions for Infrastructure Development in Rwanda: A country framework report. Washington DC: World Bank.

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http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/240078/Private%20solution…

World Bank. (2016). Country overview. Rwanda.

Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/rwanda/overview

Websites

AAFS (2015). History of AAFS.

Retrieved from http://www.aafs.org/about-aafs/#aafs-history

Aegis Trust - Genocide archive of Rwanda. (2015a). Genocide Archive of Rwanda.

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http://genocidearchiverwanda.org.rw/index.php?title=Welcome_to_Genocide…

Aegis Trust - Genocide archive of Rwanda. (2015b). History of the Aegis Trust Archive and Documentation.

Retrieved from

http://genocidearchiverwanda.org.rw/index.php?title=History_of_the_Aegi…

Aegis Trust - Genocide archive of Rwanda. (2015c). Virtual tours give online access to genocide memorials across Rwanda.

Retrieved from

http://genocidearchiverwanda.org.rw/index.php?title=News:Virtual_tours_…

Aegis Trust - Genocide archive of Rwanda .(2015d). Genocide memorials.

Retrieved from http://genocidearchiverwanda.org.rw/index.php/Category:Memorials

Aegis Trust. (2011). Genocide Memorial opens at Murambi.

Retrieved from http://www.aegistrust.org/genocide-memorial-opens-murambi-rwanda/

Aegis Trust. (2015). Kigali Genocide Memorial.

Retrieved from http://www.aegistrust.org/what-we-do/activities/kigali-genocide-memoria…

American Board of Forensic Anthropology. (2008). ABFA - American Board of Forensic Anthropology.

Retrieved from http://www.theabfa.org/

Brautman, J. (2013). Rwandan Genocide Memorials. Nyarubuye: Weapons.

Retrieved from

https://s3.amazonaws.com/omeka-net/7055/archive/files/d0de5ae6846756f98…

Broutman, J. (s.d.). Sites of Mourning.

Retrieved from https://rwandanmemorials.omeka.net/sites-of-mourning

Bwindi National Park. (2016). Complete guide to Rwanda Gorilla trekking safari 2016-2017. Retrieved from http://www.bwindiforestnationalpark.com/rwanda-gorilla-trekking.html

Claridge, J. (2015). Estimating the Time of Death.

Retrieved from http://www.exploreforensics.co.uk/estimating-the-time-of-death.html

CNLG (2013). Memorial sites.  

Retrieved from http://www.cnlg.gov.rw/genocide/memorial-sites/#.V6OkntJ97IU

De Bortoli B. (2014). Post-Conflict Memorialisation in Rwanda and South Africa, Australian Insitute of International Affairs.

Retrieved from http://www.internationalaffairs.org.au/post-conflict-memorialisation-in…

EAAF (s.d.). Founding of EAAF.

Retrieved from http://eaaf.typepad.com/founding_of_eaaf/

FAFG (2015). Who we are.

Retrieved from http://www.fafg.org/en/quienes-somos/

Free Speech Radio News (2014). A Visit to the Kigali Genocide Memorial in Rwanda.

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Genocide Archive of Rwanda - Nyamata (s.d.). Nyamata Memorial.

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http://genocidearchiverwanda.org.rw/index.php?title=Nyamata_Memorialand…

Genocide Archive of Rwanda (2015). Kibeho Memorial.

Retrieved from http://genocidearchiverwanda.org.rw/index.php/Kibeho_Memorial

Getty Images (1994). The Remains of Slain Tutsis lie on the floor.

Retrieved from http://www.gettyimages.be/detail/nieuwsfoto's/the-remains-of-slain-tuts…

Getty Images (2004). Volunteer bone cleaner washes skulls from a mass grave at the Nyamata Church, Rwanda, after the grave was discovered 3 weeks ago. 02/04/2004.

Retrieved from http://www.gettyimages.be/detail/nieuwsfoto's/volunteer-bone-cleaner-wa…

Getty Images (2014). Caskets holding the remains of many victims rest on pews as their blood-stained clothing hangs from the rafters inside Ntarama Catholic Church memorial ahead of the 20th anniversary of the country's genocide.

Retrieved from   http://www.gettyimages.be/gebeurtenis/churches-became-sites-of-massacre…

Getty Images (s.d.). Mountain Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Male guarding troop, Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

Retrieved from  http://www.gettyimages.nl/detail/foto/mountain-gorilla-male-guarding-tr…

Hohenhaus - Rwanda (s.d.). Rwanda.

Retrieved from http://www.dark-tourism.com/index.php/rwanda

Hohenhaus, P. (s.d.). Bisesero Genocide and Resistance memorial. Retrieved from http://www.dark-tourism.com/index.php/rwanda/15-countries/individual-ch…

Hohenhaus, P. (s.d.). Murambi Genocide Memorial. Retrieved from http://www.dark-tourism.com/index.php/rwanda/15-countries/individual-ch…

Hohenhaus, P. (s.d.). Ntarama Genocide Memorial. Retrieved from http://www.dark-tourism.com/index.php/rwanda/15-countries/individual-ch…

Hohenhaus, P. (s.d.). Nyamata Genocide Memorial. Retrieved from http://www.dark-tourism.com/index.php/rwanda/15-countries/individual-ch…

Hohenhaus, P. (s.d.). Nyarubuye Genocide Memorial. Retrieved from http://www.dark-tourism.com/index.php/rwanda/15-countries/individual-ch…

IBUKA Rwanda (2003). IBUKA mémoire et justice. Qui sommes nous.

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IBUKA Rwanda (2011). IBUKA: Strategic Plan 2011-2015.

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ICMP (2005). ICMP finds improved methods for locating mass graves.

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ICMP (2014). About us.

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ICTJ (2016). Transitional Justice. Homepage.

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ICTY (s.d.). About the ICTY.

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IMDb - Hotel Rwanda (s.d.). Hotel Rwanda.

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IMDb -Gorillas in the mist (s.d.). Gorillas in the mist: The Story of Dian Fossey.

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Inforce - About us (2016). About Us. An Introduction.

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Iserson, K.V. (s.d.). Rigor Mortis and Other Post-mortem Changes.

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Jessee, E. (s.d.). International Forensic Investigations on Trial: The Case of Rwanda.

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Joel Meeker (2016). Genocide Memorial Sites Slideshow. Tripadvisor - Tripwow.

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Jura, J. (s.d.). Kigali Genocide Memorial.

Retrieved from http://www.orwelltoday.com/rwandakigalimemorial.shtml

Kabiza Wilderness Safaris (2016). Never Again. The Gisozi Genocide Memorial Center. Kigali.

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Kelly, R. (s.d.). The 1994 Rwanda Genocide – The path to mass murder and the reasons for global inaction.

Retrieved from http://district.bluegrass.kctcs.edu/ryan.kelly/Rwanda_Paper.htm

Kigali Genocide Memorial (s.d.). Memorial exhibitions.

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Londonist. (2016). Tudors at the Tower family festival. Londonist, 16/04/2016.

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Meierhenrich, J. (2010). Through a Glass Darkly: Genocide Memorials in Rwanda 1994-Present. Retrieved from http://www.genocidememorials.org/

One World, Nations online (2016). Political Map of Rwanda.

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Outreach Programme on the Rwanda Genocide and the United Nations (s.d.). Annual commemoration.

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Pagliari, B. (2004). From a Death-Denying to a Death-Defying to a Death-Deriding Society.

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Parisianist. (2015). Our Editor in chief's 5 favourite places in Paris. Parisianist, 29/07/2015.

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Physicians for Human Rights (2006). International Forensic Investigation Online Course.

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Remarkable Rwanda. (s.d.). Homepage.

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Republic of Rwanda. Western Province. (2014). Bisesero : imibiri y’abazize jenoside irenga ibihumbi 50 yashyinguwe mu cyubahiro.

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Universiteit of Hogeschool
Master in de criminologische wetenschappen
Publicatiejaar
2016
Promotor
Stephan Parmentier
Kernwoorden